Terminological Practicum for IT Students

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY JSC

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES

V. Yermakova

B. Jolamanova

M. Vasquez

TERMINOLOGICAL PRACTICUM

FOR IT STUDENTS

Approved

by Academic-Methodological Council

of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Almaty

2017

УДК

ББК

Reviewers:

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Rector of Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages Kunanbayeva S.S.

Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor of Kazakh British Technical University Zagidullin R.Z. Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor of IITU Issayev M.K.

Candidate of Economical Sciences, Professor of IITU Berdylulova G.M.

Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor of IITU Zhanabayeva S.B.

Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor of IITU Niyazgulova A.A.

Approved by Academic-Methodological Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors:

V.A. Yermakova, Candidate of Philological Sciences, Assistant Professor

B.D. Jolamanova, Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor

M. Vasquez, Senior Lecturer, Master of Special Education

Terminological practicum for IT students/V.A. Yermakova, B.D. Jolamanova, M. Vasquez Almaty: IITU, 2017.

ISBN

The manual “Terminological Practicum for IT students” is meant to complement English for ICT textbooks for the students of Pre-Intermediate - Upper Intermediate levels majoring in ICT.

It consists of two parts, each containing several thematically organized modules. Each module comprises a 40-terms glossary, a set of language and speech activities, aimed at memorizing and free use of the ICT terms, and a vocabulary test to check the knowledge. Well-structured and independently organized modules make lesson planning easy and flexible.

The manual is supplemented with the keys for exercises and tests. Alphabetical index provides quick search of terms.

УДК

ББК

ISBN

©IITU, 2017

МИНИСТЕРСТВР ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ

КАФЕДРА ЯЗЫКОВ

В.А. ЕРМАКОВА

Б.Д. ДЖОЛАМАНОВА

М. ВАСКЕС

ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ПРАКТИКУМ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ

ИКТ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ

Одобрено

Республиканским учебно-методическим советом

Almaty

2017

УДК

ББК

Рецензенты:

Доктор педагогических наук, профессор, ректор КАЗУМОиМЯ Кунанбаева С.С.

Доктор филологических наук, профессор КБТУ Загидуллин Р.З.

Доктор филологических наук, профессор МУИТ Исаев М.К.

Кандидат технических наук, профессор МУИТ Айтмагамбетов А.З.

PhD, сениор-лектор МУИТ Хамитов А.Н.

MSc in International Business, ассистент профессор МУИТ Каржаубаева С.Э.

Одобрено Республиканским учебно-методическим советом

Авторы:

Ермакова В.А., кандидат филологических наук, ассистент-профессор

Джоламанова Б.Д., кандидат филологических наук, ассоциированный профессор

М. Васкес, магистр педагогики, сениор-лектор

Terminological practicum for IT students/В.АЕрмакова, Б.ДДжоламанова, M. Васкес. – Алматы: МУИТ, 2017.

ISBN

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов технических ВУЗов и колледжей, а также ИКТ факультетов изучающих обязательную дисциплину «Профессиональный английский язык». Тематически пособие охватывает широкий спектр информационно-технических специальностей, таких как: Информационные системы, Вычислительная техника и программное обеспечение, Математическое и компьютерное моделирование, Радиотехника, электроника и телекоммуникации, Системы информационной безопасности и Информатика.

Пособие нацелено на введение, расширение и закрепление терминологического словаря обучающихся, развитие навыков использования английского языка как средства профессионального общения и является существенным дополнением к основным учебникам курса, поскольку содержит базовые, широко распространенные термины.

Пособие построено по тематическому принципу и состоит из двух блоков: общего (содержащего общие ИКТ термины, необходимые каждому обучающемуся в работе с ПК и в Интернете) и специального (предназначенного для отдельных технических специальностей, перечисленных выше). Модуль является независимой единицей, что делает удобным и гибким планирование программы обучения.

Каждый модуль состоит из глоссария, содержащего 40 наиболее частотных и значимых терминов по указанным специальностям, и снабжен: серией из 15 упражнений (7 языковых и 8 речевых) на закрепление и выведение в речь отобранных терминов, контрольным тестом на проверку качества усвоения терминов, состоящим из 20 заданий множественного выбора и ключами к тесту и упражнениям закрытого типа. Алфавитный индексальный глоссарий обеспечивает легкий поиск терминов.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL PART p.

Module 1. People in IT 5

Module 2. Devices and gadgets

Module 3. Texting

Module 4. Hardware

Module 5. Software

Module 6. Cyberspace

Module 7. Cyber crime

Module 8. Cyber security

Module 8. Trends in IT

SPECIFIC PART

Module 10. Data storage

Module 11. Networks

Module 12. Programming

Module 13. Radioelectronics

Module 14. Telecommunication

Module 15. Computer modeling

Module 16. Mathematics

KEYS

INDEX


GENERAL PART

Module 1. PEOPLE IN IT

Term

Definition

Usage

Administrator (n)

an individual who is responsible for the running of and day-to-day operation of a project, program, business, organization, etc.

work as/perform the functions of/ take on the responsibilities of/earn one’s living as an ~; occupy/get promoted to/give up/take up the position of an ~; database/system ~;

administration (n), administer (v), administrative (adj); administratively;

syn. manager

Analyst (n)

a person engaged in detailed examination of the computer systems and procedures and designing information system solutions to help them operate more efficiently and effectively

work as/perform the functions of/take on the responsibilities of/earn one’s living as an ~; occupy/get promoted to/give up/take up the position of an ~; information security/support ~; analysis (n), analyze (v), analytical (adj), analytically (adv)

Architect (n)

the one who designs and builds computer systems

work as/perform the functions of /take on the responsibilities of/earn one’s living as an ~; occupy/get promoted to/give up/take up the position of an ~; architecture (n): personal computer /modern computer/client-server/64-bit computer ~; architectural (adj): ~ design

Back (adj)

the side or part of the work that is not normally seen by the customer

~-end programmer/developer;

~ -office employee;

ant. front-end; front-office

Blogger

an individual or a small group regularly updating its weblog (blog for short) run in an informal or conversational style

a popular/famous/notorious ~; blog (v); blog (n): make a post on/keep/block a ~; blogging (n)

Botmaster (n)

an individual who maintains a bot and is responsible for keeping it online, fixing errors, ensuring compliance with the rules of the channel or server it's logged into

act as/perform the functions of/take on the responsibilities of a ~

Cryptographer (n)

the one engaged in protecting sensitive data and making it unreadable for anyone not meant to see the data

work as/ take on the responsibilities of/earn one’s living as a ~; occupy/give up /take up the position of a ~; decrypt (v), encrypt (v), cryptography (n), cryptographic (adj)

Consumer (n)

a person who uses goods and services

~ demand/culture/spending/goods/protection/products/durables/electronics/market/boom; protect/benefit the ~; consume (v), consumerism (n) syn. end-user

Customer (n)

a person who buys goods or services from a shop or a business

~ service/support; customize (v), customized (adj), customization (n)

syn. client, clientele

Designer (n)

the one who is responsible for creating solutions that have a high visual impact

a graphic ~; design (n): make ~ decisions, computer-aided/creative/ standard ~; designed (adj): a specially ~ feature

Developer (n)

the one who creates a computer program and brings it into existence

program/application/web/back-end/front-end ~; develop (v), development (n), developmental (adj)

Engineer (n)

a person who designs, builds, or maintains engines, machines, or structures

computer software/hardware ~;

engineering (n): software/hardware/power ~

Expert (n)

a person who is very knowledgeable about or skillful in a particular area

security ~ ; an ~ in sth; expert (adj): be ~ at sth; ~ evaluation of sth;

expertise (n): technical ~; a field of ~;

syn. proficiency

Follower (n)

on social media sites, someone who subscribes to and receives sb’s updates

have ~s; become sb’s ~;

follow (v), following (adj)

Geek (n)

a knowledgeable and obsessive enthusiast; an individual who frequently uses the computer in his or her free time rather than participates in any other activities

alpha/ugly~; geek (v), geekish (adj);

syn. addict

Cf. a nerd

Freelancer (n)

a self-employed person hired to work for different companies on particular assignments

earn one’s living as a ~;

freelance (n): a ~ programmer, try one’s hand in ~

Lamer (n)

(slang) a stupid, inept, or dull person, who does not understand what he or she is doing

feel like/be a ~; a bunch of ~s

Layman (n)

a person without professional or specialized knowledge in a particular subject

a ~ in sth; an interested/intelligent ~;

syn. amateur; ant. professional

Lurker (n)

a person who reads the postings in an Internet forum without actively contributing to it

be/act as a ~; lurk (v): ~ in a chatroom/on listservs

Manager (n)

a person responsible for controlling or administering sth

a network/product/program ~;

(mis)manage (v), (mis)management (n), managerial (adj)

Master (n)

a person who has complete control of sth

Web/bot~ ; gamemaster (gamester) (); ~ of the situation;

ant. slave

Moderator (n)

a person who governs, drives, mediates an Internet forum or an online discussion

act as/perform the functions of/take on the responsibilities of a ~;

(im)moderate (adj); moderation (n); (im)moderately (adv)

Nerd (n)

an individual who is obsessed with science, math, or technology, commonly possessing little or no social skills

a computer ~;

nerdy (adj), nerdish (adj), nerdishness (n)

syn. geek, devotee

Netizen (n)

a user of the Internet, especially a habitual or keen one

privacy-conscious ~s; the new generation of ~s; netizenry (n); netizenship (n);

Cf. citizen

Newbie (n)

an inexperienced newcomer to a particular activity

netizen ~s; a ~ on the computer; a ~ to Linux

syn. novice

Programmer (n)

the ones who write codes to create software programs by turning the program designs made by software developers and engineers into instructions that a computer can follow

applications/systems/Java/experienced ~; program (v), program (n), (re)programmable (adj); (re)programming (n)

Provider (n)

(ISP)

a company that provides

Internet access to users or subscribers of its service

a leading/major ~; provide (v): ~ sb with sth; ~ for sth; provision (n); provided that… (conj);

syn. supplier

Operator (n)

the person responsible for the secure and efficient work of computer hardware systems

machine/equipment ~;

operation (n): be (put) in ~; operate

(v): ~ upon sb; operational (adj): ~ expenses; be fully ~

Repairer (n)

the one who restores sth damaged or faulty to a normal working condition

work as/use the services of a ~; repair (n): be in a state of ~; need ~; ~ damage; be beyond ~;

syn. fix (up), mend

Savvy (adj)

shrewd and knowledgeable about sth

a computer-~ person; a ~ player;

syn. intelligent, canny

Scientist (n)

one inventing and designing new approaches to the computing technology and finding innovative uses for the existing technology

computer/information research ~; science (n); scientific (adj): ~ study/knowledge/community; scientifically (adv);

syn. researcher, theorist

Specialist (n)

a person highly skilled in a specific and restricted field

computer support/network support/multimedia/security ~;

specialize (v): ~ in sth, specialty (n), special (adj), specially (adv)

Subscriber (n)

the one who has arranged for access to an electronic mailing list or an online service

~ to a magazine/service; a new ~; subscribe (v): ~ to sth online; subscription (n;

ant. unsubscribe

Surfer (n)

the one who moves from site to site on the Internet

Internet ~;

surfing (n), surf (v)

Technician (n)

a person employed to look after technical equipment, an expert in the practical application of science

a software/laboratory/CISCO/skilled ~; technique (n), technology (n), technical (adj);

Cf. techie

Telecommuter (n)

the one working for a company from home, making use of the Internet, email, and the telephone

telecommute (v); telecommuting (n): allow for/promote ~

Troubleshooter (n)

the one analyzing and solving serious problems for a company or other organization, or tracing and correcting faults in an electronic system

helpdesk ~;

troubleshooting (v): have a proven track record in ~; preventive maintenance and ~

User (n)

a person who applies or operates sth, a client, customer, consumer

end/power/default ~;

~ manual/account/base/ID/profile

/policy; useful (adj), usable (adj), usability (n), user-friendly (adj): ~-interface/device/gadget; user-friendliness (n)

Vendor (n)

a person or company that provides a service or a product and offers it for sale, especially in the street

a street ~;

vend (v), vending (adj): ~ machine,

vendible (adj);

syn. seller

Wizard (n)

a person who is very skilled in a particular field or activity

a computer/financial ~;

syn. genius, master, expert

1. Computer and information technology occupations. US Bureau of Labour Statistics. [Online]. Available: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/computer-and-information-technology/home.htm [Accessed: 13 Sept. 2015]

2. Browse job profiles. Graduate prospects. [Online]. Available: http://www.prospects.ac.uk/types_of_jobs_information_technology.htm [Accessed: 21 Sept. 2015]

3. Computer dictionary. Computer Hope. [Online]. Available: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/jd.htm [Accessed: 26 Sept. 2015]

4. Oxford dictionaries. Oxford University press. [Online]. Available: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english [Accessed: 26 Sept. 2015]

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. geek

2. administrator

3. layman

4. end-user

5. client

6. wizard

7. provider

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. backend

2. encrypt

3. layman

4. newbie

5. master

6. vendor

7. client

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

operate

special

program

developmentally

consume

analyst

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

administrator

Adj/N

Target vocabulary unit

user

Adj/N

Target vocabulary unit

programmer

Adj/N

Target vocabulary unit

manager

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. cryptographer

A. an individual who is responsible for the running of and the day-to-day operation of a project, program, a business, organization

2. moderator

B. the one who decides upon the look and functioning of program and is responsible for creating solutions that have a high visual impact

3. administrator

C. the one engaged in protecting sensitive data and making it unreadable for anyone not meant to see the data

4. telecommuter

D. a person who drives or mediates an Internet forum or online discussion

5. designer

E. the one working for a company from home, making use of the Internet, email, and the telephone

6. vendor

F. the one tracing and correcting faults in an electronic system or analyzing and solving serious problems for a company or other organization

7. troubleshooter

G. a person or company that provides a service or a product and offers it for sale, especially in the street

Activity 6. Insert prepositions:

1. He is a newbie __ the computer.

2. Who will take __ the manager responsibilities?

3. He is an expert __ programming.

4. You can’t fix the scanner. It is __ repair.

5. Have you subscribed __ this magazine?

6. He has a proven track-record __ troubleshooting.

7. I took __ the position of an administrator.

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following words:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. expert - newbie

A. general and specific

2. digital technologies – telecommuting

B. cause and effect

3. developer – designer

C. contrast

4. architect – designer

D. method and purpose

5. Internet forum – moderator

E. part and whole

6. bug – debugging

F. equivalence

7. wizard – lamer

Activity 8. Decode John Pfeiffer’s saying about computers and people and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/cryptogramSetupForm.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

1. front end - back end programmer

2. consumer-customer

3. nerd – geek

4. lurker – follower

5. lamer – newbie

6. freelancer – full-time employee

7. netizen – citizen

Activity 10. Divide the above listed IT professions into 2 groups of “white-collar” and “blue-collar” jobs.

Activity 11. Relate the following professions to the respective stages of programming and arrange them chronologically:

Troubleshooter

Operator

Designer

Analyst

Cryptographer

Developer

Activity 12. Name 5 back-end jobs directly related to programming. Give their brief description.

Activity 13. Name 5 front-end office jobs directly related to programming. Give their brief description.

Activity 14. Identify 5 computer problems and say who you would ask for help (e.g. if you need a non-existent application, if your computer is out of order, if you want to buy a computer, etc.)

Activity 15. Describe your personal experience of working as a…or the computer-related job, which you would like to do.

TEST

1

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “master - slave”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) contrast d) part and whole

2

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “geek – alpha geek”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) contrast d) part and whole

3

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “subscriber - follower”: a) equivalence b) cause and effect c) contrast d) part and whole

4

Mark the odd word: a) fix b) mend c) repair d) restore

5

Which of these is a person who governs or mediates an Internet forum or online discussion: a) gamester b) botmaster c) moderator d) administrator

6

Which of these maintains an autonomous program on a network:

a) gamester b) botmaster c) moderator d) administrator

7

Which of these is a computer-savvy person:

a) layman b) lamer c) wizard d) newbie

8

Which of these has the most theoretical field of expertise:

a) expert b) specialist c) analyst d) scientist

9

You can subscribe ___ the listserv for £3 per annum and receive advance notice of all events. a) for b) in c) to d) on

10

He is an expert __ project development. a) for b) in c) at d) on

11

Some people just lurk ___ listservs without participating.

a) for b) in c) at d) on

12

A developer is the one who

a) creates a computer program and brings it into existence

b) is responsible for creating solutions that have a high visual impact

c) who writes codes to create software programs

d) designs, builds, or maintains engines, machines, or structures

13

A programmer is the one who

a) creates a computer program and brings it into existence

b) is responsible for creating solutions that have a high visual impact

c) who writes codes to create software programs

d) designs, builds, or maintains engines, machines, or structures

14

Mark the odd word: a) provider b) customer c) client d) consumer

15

A person who uses goods and services is called a(n)___ .

a) consumer b) customer c) client d) vendor

16

A person or company that offers a service or a product for sale, especially in the street is called a(n)___. a) consumer b) customer c) client d) vendor

17

A repairer is a person

a) employed to look after technical equipment, an expert in the practical application of a science

b) responsible for the secure and efficient work of computer hardware systems

c) who restores sth damaged or faulty to a normal working condition

d) tracing and correcting faults in an electronic system or analyzing and solving serious problems for a company or other organization

18

An operator is a person ___ .

a) employed to look after technical equipment, an expert in the practical application of a science

b) responsible for the secure and efficient work of computer hardware systems

c) who restores sth damaged or faulty to a normal working condition

d) tracing and correcting faults in an electronic system or analyzing and solving serious problems for a company or other organization

19

The difference between a nerd and a geek concerns mostly ___ .

a) stylistic coloring b) field of operation c) gender d) attitude to occupation

20

Процесс поиска неисправностей, диагностики и устранения неполадок” is best translated as: a) repairing b) mending c) troubleshooting d) fixing


Module 2. TEXTING

Term

Definition

Usage

Align (v)

line up type and other graphic elements using a horizontal or vertical line as the reference point

~ left/right/center; ~ sth with sth; left ~ a paragraph;

alignment (n), aligned (adj);

syn. justify

ant. non-alignment

Bold (adj)

confident and courageous; using dark, heavy strokes in typing, especially for emphasis

printed in ~ type; bolding (n): preserve ~; debold (v), unbold (v);

syn. conspicuous, distinct

Bullet (n)

a heavy dot itemizing particular sections of text or introducing each item in a list, for emphasis

insert/use a ~ point/symbol;

bulleted (adj): a ~ list

Cf. a numbered list

Case (n)

the parameter indicating the letter size to distinguish capital letters as opposed to small letters

upper/lower ~; change ~;

~-sensitive (adj);

Cf: caps, caps lock

Clipboard (n)

a software facility used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations

send/copy from (to) the ~; the Windows ~; a ~ copy/toolbar/ operation

Close (v)

move so as to cover an opening; make a file inaccessible after use, so that it is securely stored until required again

~ a folder/program/application/ file; (dis)closure (n), disclose (v);

ant. open

Compile (v)

collect information in order to produce a list, a report, etc.

~ (a) data/database/list/report/

book/program/statistics/profile/

CV/portfolio;

compiler (n), compilation (n);

syn. assemble, put together

Copy (v)

reproduce data (stored in one location) in another location

~ a file/text/diagram; copy (n): a(n) soft/hard/free/enclosed/ certified/master/backup ~; a photocopy (n);

syn. duplicate

ant. original

Correct (v)

free from error; put sth (an error or fault) right; bring sth in accordance with fact or truth

~ a(n) mistake/error/fault; correction (n): ~ fluid; (in)correct (adj), (in)correctly (adv), corrector (n), corrective (adj): a ~ step/action/instruction; correctional (adj): institution/staff/supervisor

syn. remedial

Delete (v)

remove data from a computer memory

~ a word/file/folder/phrase/ memory; a ~ key; deletion (n), (un)deletable (adj);

syn. erase

ant. undelete

Edit (v)

revise or correct some written material to make it publishable

~ a text/file/webpage/article/ paper; editor (n), (un)edited (adj): ~ content/text; edition (n), (un)editable (adj); editorial (n, adj): ~ board;

syn. correct, proofread

Enter (v)

write or key (information) in a book, computer, etc.

~ transactions/data/information into the computer/register/logbook; the ~ key; entry (n): data ~, make/post an ~; entrance (n)

File (n)

a folder or a box for holding loose papers together and in order; collection of related data stored in a computer memory or on a storage device under a single identifying name

save a ~ to a disc; delete/open/ select/share/upload/zip/download a ~; a fact~; ~ extension; rank-and-file;

file (v): ~ a(n) document/application/complaint; filing (adj): a ~ system;

syn. document

Folder (n)

a file which consists solely of a set of other related files or documents

save sth in/add sth to/open/delete/ create a ~; a junk mail/new ~; (un)fold (v), (un)folded (adj);

syn. directory

Font (n)

a complete set of characters having a specific look, size and style 

choose/use/select a ~; a variety of ~s; the required ~;

syn. typeface

Format (n)

a definite structure for the processing, storage, or display of data

~ (a) disc/data/text; apply/copy/paste/delete a ~; the binary/file/HTML/JPEG/A4 ~; the ~ requirements; (re)format (v), (re)formatted (adj)

Forward (v)

send on to a further destination

~ a letter/document/message to sb; a ~ slash; forwarded (adj): ~ to/from address; forwarding (adj): a ~ address;

syn. redirect

Highlight (v)

make sth visually prominent, draw special attention to sth by changing color

~ an issue; highlight (n): ~ of the season/year; highlighter (n); highlighted (adj): ~ in green

Image (n)

a visible impression obtained by a camera, telescope, microscope, or other device, or displayed on a computer or video screen

blurred/focused ~; ~-processing techniques/algorithms; imagine (v), imagery, imagination (n), (un)imaginable (adj)

Import (v)

transfer (data) into a file or document

~ data/a file from (to) a disc;

ant. export

Indent (v)

start (a line of text) or position (a block of text) further from the margin than the main part of the text

~ the first line; indentation (n), indented (adj): ~ two spaces from…

ant. unindented

Insert (v)

include a symbol, image, word, text in a piece of writing

~ a word/letter/graphic/sound/ text; insertion (n);

syn. incorporate

Italic(s) (n)

the sloping (inclined) kind of typeface used especially for emphasis or distinction

~ type/typeface; remove/preserve /be given in/restore ~s; (de)italicize (v);

syn. Cursive

Layout (n)

the way in which a text or pictures are set out or arranged on a page or in a work

a(n) physical/randomized/visual/ interactive data/basic/ (un)cluttered/(un)inviting ~; do the ~

Margin (n)

the blank border on each side of the print on a page

write/scribble sth in the ~; a wide/narrow ~; win by a wide/narrow ~; within the ~ of error; marginal (adj); marginally (adv); marginalize (v)

Move (v)

change the place, position of sth

~ sth to …; remove (v), move (n): a career ~; unmovable (adj); movement (n), immovable (adj);

syn. shift

Option (n)

a thing that is or may be chosen

choose/change/select an ~; default/print ~; opt (v): ~ for sth; optional (adj), optionally (adv)

syn. alternative, choice

Paste (v)

insert a piece of text or other data copied from elsewhere (the contents of the clipboard) at the cursor point

~ a word/paragraph/symbol into (from) a document/file/section; copy/cut-~ operations;

syn. glue

Pending (v)

remaining undecided or unsettled, waiting decision or settlement; while in the process of, during

a ~ report/file/action/proceedings/ patent;

syn. awaiting decision, incomplete

Proofread (v)

read written or printed material for marking and correcting any errors

need/do ~ing; ~ for accuracy

Save (v)

keep safe or rescue sb or sth from harm or danger; keep data by moving a copy to a storage location

~ time/money/a file/a text/a folder; ~ on to a server/disc/the hard drive/memory stick

Select (v)

use a mouse or keystrokes to mark sth on a computer screen for a particular operation

~ a word/text/passage/file/option; deselect (v), selection (n), selective (adj), selectively (adv);

syn. choose

Space (n)

a blank between printed, typed, or written words, characters, numbers, etc.

double/single/back/blank ~; ~ bar; leave ~ for sth; spacing (n)

Spreadsheet (n)

an electronic document in which data is arranged in the rows and columns of a grid and can be manipulated and used in calculations

fill in/leave sth blank in/create/ enter sth in(to)/print out/copy/paste/use/delete a ~; spreadsheeting (n)

Stroke (n)

an act of hitting or striking sb or sth

(a key) or moving one’s hand across a surface with gentle pressure

at a ~; a ~ of luck, a key~;

strike (v), striking

Textese (n)

the language of abbreviations and slang commonly used in digital  text messaging

use/master ~; ~ symbols/abbreviations

Underscore (v)

(on a computer or typewriter keyboard) a short horizontal line on the baseline ( _ )

the ~ character/symbol;

syn. underline

Template (n)

a preset format for a document or file, used so that it does not have to be recreated each time it is used

download/upload/copy/look for a ~;

syn. model, blueprint, sample

Type (v)

write letters and symbols on a typewriter or computer to input a text by pressing the keys

~ a text/word; retype (v); typeface (n); typo (n); typist (n)

Cf. word-processing

View (v)

look at or inspect; to have a particular attitude or opinion

come into/obstruct/hold the ~; a sober/different ~; from sb’s point of ~; with a ~ to sth; on ~; viewer (n), viewable (adj), viewpoint (n)

1. Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press. [Online]. Available: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english [Accessed: 20 Oct. 2015]

2. Flax collocations. University of Waikato. [Online]. Available: http://flax.nzdl.org/greenstone3/flax?c=590readings&a=g&rt=r&sa=FlaxCollocationRetrieve&s=FlaxCollocationBrowse&s1.query=image [Accessed: 20 Oct. 2015]

3. Texting slang, Your dictionary. [Online]. Available: http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/slang/texting-slang.html [Accessed: 21 Oct. 2015]

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. justify

2. alternative

3. cursive

4. conspicuous

5. delete

6. folder

7. paste

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. bold

2. select

3. movable

4. italicize

5. movable

6. correct

7. upper case

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

align

deletion

immovably

option

strike

marginal

un/imaginable

in/correctly

Activity 4. Make up phrases by matching the words in the left column with those in the right:

1. correct

A. left/right/center

2. enter

B. database/a list/a report/a book/a program/a profile/a CV/a portfolio

3. align

C. a(n) mistake/error/fault

4. paste

D. transactions/data/information into the computer

5. compile

E. a word/paragraph/symbol into a document/file/section

6. pending

F. a word/text/passage/file/option

7. select

G. (a/n) report/file/action/proceedings/patent

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. clipboard

A. a heavy dot itemizing particular sections of text or introducing each item in a list

2. pending

B. a software facility used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer

3. template

C. a definite structure for the processing, storage, or display of data

4. margin

D. remaining undecided or unsettled, waiting decision or settlement

5. bullet

E. a preset format for a document or file, used so that the format does not have to be recreated each time it is used

6. forward

F. the blank border on each side of the print on a page

7. format

G. send on to a further destination

Activity 6. Insert prepositions:

1. My notes are highlighted __ green.

2. I have saved the file __ a disc/___ a server.

3. Their party won the elections __ a wide margin.

4. The newly independent countries opted ___ the market economy.

5. You should proofread the translation ___ accuracy.

6. We met them halfway with a view ___ continued cooperation.

7. The truly market mechanisms are not yet ___ place.

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. write – scribble

A. general and specific

2. template – model

B. cause and effect

3. error – typo

C. contrast

4. page – margin

D. method and purpose

5. copy – original

E. part and whole

6. folder – file

F. equivalence

7. bold type - emphasis

Activity 8. Decode Sherry Turkle’s saying about texting and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/cryptogramSetupForm.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

proofread – edit

entry – entrance

type - typeface – font

strike – stroke

file-folder

layout – format – template

italic-italics

<Object: word/embeddings/oleObject1.bin>

Activity 10. Explain the meaning and use of the prefixes “de-“, “im”, “un-“, “in-“, “re-“ and give not less than 3 examples of each.

Activity 11. Say what the following is used for:

1. template

2. font

3. clipboard

4. folder

5. bullet

6. underscore

7. image

Activity 12. Name 3-5 things/operations you can do for the given purpose; say how you can do them:

1. To emphasize a word in a text

2. To eliminate mistakes in a text

3. To digitize a text

4. To make your text look better

Activity 13. Name the texting operations most problematic for you/rarely use by you. Explain why. Think of some new texting operations that may be introduced and explain why we need them.

Activity 14. Semantic mapping: draw a flow chart reflecting the process of texting.

Activity 15. Write an essay on how word-processing has changed our life.

TEST

1

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “emphasis – bold type”: a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose d) part and whole

2

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “write-scribble”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) part and whole

3

Which of these is the most specific:

a) error b) mistake c) typo d) blunder

4

A preset format for a document or file, used so that the format does not have to be recreated each time it is used is known as ___ .

a) model b) template d) format d) module

5

Many buyers tend to opt ___ a more practical design.

a) on b) for c) at d) out

6

A software facility used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations is called a/n ___.

a) clipboard b) clip c) board d) clip board

7

Please save the file ___ a disc. a) on b) in c) to d) from

8

A particular design of type in printing is known as ___.

a) type b) typeface c) face d) typo

9

The language of abbreviations and slang commonly used in digital text messaging is called ____.

a) officialese b) textese c) journalese d) Vietnamese

10

Mark the odd word: a) correct b) edit c) proofread d) read

11

All of these are used for emphasis EXCEPT FOR:

a) align b) bold c) italics d) highlight

12

All of these are text formatting operations EXCEPT FOR: a) indenting b) proofreading c) aligning d) listing

13

Mark the odd word: a) cursive b) italics c) bold d) highlight

14

When a large number of copies of the same document or form are required, they can be duplicated or photocopied from a ___ copy.

a) backup b) master c) duplicate d) photo

15

Small typefaces make the text ___ and difficult to read.

a) blurred b) focused c) indented d) distinct

16

Before submitting your paper, ___ and correct it if necessary.

a) read b) reread c) proofread d) check

17

____ “Esc” to make the message line disappear.

a) Entry b) Enter c) Entrance d) Entree

18

The computer is also programmed automatically to store the actual date of data ___, without displaying this information.

a) entry b) enter c) entrance d) entree

19

The Conservatives won the elections in October ___ a very narrow margin. a) with b) by c) on d) in

20

Caps Lock will only type letters in the ___ case.

a) lower b) upper c) higher d) low


Module 3. DEVICES AND GADGETS

Term

Definition

Usage

Assist (v)

help sb typically by doing a share of the work, providing money or information

~ sb at/in/with sth; assistant (n), assistance (n); assistive (adj): ~ technology;

syn. help, aid, give sb a hand

ant. hinder sth, prevent sb from doing sth

Barcode (n)

a set of printed lines on a product’s label that tells a computer information about it, such as its price

the ~ reader/system/generator/ program/ verifier; read/type/identify/print/ encode/scale the ~;

barcode (v): ~ (a/n) product/item/goods

Braille (n)

a system of printing and writing for the blind, in which characters are formed by patterns of raised dots which are felt with the fingertips

(the) ~ equipment/display/embosser/

system/writer/label/font/alphabet/converter; use/read/touch/create/

learn ~; written/labeled in ~;

brailled (v)

BYOD (abbr)

Bring Your Own Device

the practice of allowing employees or students to bring their own computing devices to work, college, university etc. for work/study purposes

implement/introduce/follow ~;

the ~ policy/practice

Camera (n)

a device for recording visual images in the form of photographs, films, or video signals

~ compartment/user/lens/rig/film/ shot/track; a(n) optical/compact/ the CCTV ~;

(re)furbish/upgrade/recharge a ~; cameraman (n)

Charge (v)

store electrical energy (in a battery or battery-operated device); formally accuse sb of sth, especially of an offence under law; entrust sb with a duty or responsibility; demand (an amount) as a price for a service rendered or goods supplied

~ a battery/gadget/device; keep the battery ~d; ~ sb with sth; be in ~ of sth; impose/levy a ~ on sb; lay/bring a ~ against sb; pay/increase/reduce the ~s; free of ~; re/chargeable (adj): ~ battery; charger (n);

syn. control, accusation, fee

Connect (v)

join together so as to provide access and communication

~ to a device/wire/network/router/ printer/computer/gadget; connection (n): have/break/sever/establish/find/make/see a ~; (dis)connected, (adj); (dis)connectedly (adv); connective (adj); connectivity (n)

syn. link

ant. disconnect, disconnection

Device (n)

a mechanism or a piece of equipment designed to serve a purpose or perform a function

~ contention/driver/node; a(n) input/output/MIDI/warning/ reading/locking/surveillance/ household/recording ~;

purchase/(dis)connect/upgrade a ~;

syn. gizmo, gadget

Digital (adj)

stored as numbers or electronic signals (about information)

~ age/audio/camera/certificate/ computer/divide/film/signature/

detox; digit (n), digitize (v), digitalize (v), digitizer (n), digitally (adv);

syn. numeric

ant. analogue

Display (n)

putting sth in a prominent place for it to be readily seen; the visual representation of the output of an electronic device

plasma/panel/processor/case/screen/unit/terminal ~;

a(n) eye-catching/clear/wide ~; put on/go on ~;

displayer (n), display (v);

syn. show

ant. conceal, hide

E- (prf)

electronic, indicating the involvement of the Internet

~ book/zine/pub/commerce/library;

purchase/subscribe to a(n) ~ book/zine/publication

Fax (facsimile machine) (n)

an output device capable of fast and convenient transmission of photocopied information through a telephone line

send/get/receive sth by ~ ;

modem/software/card/mode/call;

fax (v): ~ a(n) document/file/agreement /memo

Flash memory (n)

a type of non-volatile memory which does not need a constant source of electricity for it to retain the stored data

a ~ card;

compact ~;

read/(re)format the ~

Gadget (n)

a specialized mechanical or electronic device, usually small in size

use/invent/create/buy a ~; a ~ freak

a(n) musical/electrical/modern ~; suffer from a ~ fatigue;

syn. gizmo, device

Gamepad (n)

a handheld device used to control a computer game or a video game

a ~ button/cord; a USB ~;

(dis)connect/play/operate/keep a ~

Google Glass (n)

a computer that is worn like eyeglasses, which has a tiny display within the field of vision, responds to voice commands and eye movements, and has a touchpad at the side

a ~ application/frame/pad/rim/ earpiece/lens/nose pad/end piece;

protect/upgrade/polish/wear a ~

Input (n)

information that is put into a computer

~ devices/data; have/need/get/receive/provide/ process an ~; input (v);

ant. output

Headset (n)

a device that holds an earphone and a microphone in place on a person's head

a high performance/cordless/ wireless/radio/Bluetooth ~;

wear/upgrade/replace/take off/put on the ~

Lens (n)

a clear curved piece of glass or plastic that is used in eyeglasses, cameras, telescopes, etc., to make things look clearer, smaller, or bigger

magnetic/telescopic/cap/

colored/tinted/contact/optical/spectacle/ camera ~;

reduce/change/wear/replace/take off the ~;lensed (adj);

Cf. glass

Monitor (n)

a person who observes a process or activity to check that it is carried out fairly or correctly, especially in an official capacity; an output device that displays text and graphics

color/CCTV/video/computer/screen/high resolution ~; on a/the ~;

protect/replace the ~;

monitor (v): ~ the performance/progress//procedure/ quality/situation;

monitored (adj); monitoring (n), monitorial (adj);

syn. screen, control

MP3 (n)

a means of compressing a sound sequence to enable its digital storage and transmission

file/player/format/ringtone/music; convert/download/transfer an ~ file

Netbook (n)

a small, very light and inexpensive laptop computer with limited memory used primarily for accessing the Internet

~ computer; high/low-end ~;

upgrade/replace/repair a ~

Output (n)

the amount of sth produced by a person, machine, or industry; produced, delivered, or supplied data

an ~ data/file/form/screen/device; increase/decrease/provide some ~; drop/fall/growth/rise in ~; steady/low/aggregate/gross/ overall/total ~; output (v);

ant. input

Optical (adj)

relating to sight, especially in relation to the action of light

media/disk/zoom/scanner/storage/fiber/memory/cable/

drive/array/ lens; optics (n), optically (adv), optician (n)

Pixel (n)

one of the individual dots that make up a graphical image

a ~ bit/graphic/count/information/ data/resolution/value; binary ~;

pack/modify ~s; pixilation (n), pixilate (v), pixelated (adj): a ~ image

Plotter (n)

an automated drawing tool that produces finely scaled drawings by moving a pen and/or paper in response to computer commands

a ~ font/display; a drum/flatbed/ pen/chart/laser/electrostatic/

flat bed/color ~;

upgrade/use/configure a ~

Projector (n)

a device used for displaying an image on a screen, as from a transparent slide or film

overhead/film/slide/video ~;

switch off (on)/operate a ~

PTOYED (abbr)

Please Turn Off Your Electronic Devices

(slang) an airline, cinema or theater announcement to make the passengers or viewers turn off their electronic devices and gadgets

implement/break/follow the ~ rule

Resolution (n)

a firm decision to do or not to do sth; a formal decision; the action of solving a problem; density of pixels, measured by the number of dots per inch

pass/vote on/adopt a ~; high/screen/spatial/color ~;

modify/adjust/configure ~; a successful/peaceful ~ of a problem; resolve (v): ~ a problem; (un)resolved) (adj); (ir)resolute (adj): be ~ in one’s determination to do sth; (ir)resolutely (adv)

Retina display (n)

a device that works without a screen by drawing pixels directly on the user’s retina with a focused beam of light

a ~ screen;

provide/include/adjust the ~

Sensor (n)

a device that enables digital machines to monitor the physical quantity of the analog world, such as temperature, humidity, or pressure, to provide data used in robotics, environmental climate control, and other applications

~ data fusion/unit/device; infrared/analog/image/ electromagnetic ~; sense (v);

sensory (adj); sensorily (adv);

syn. detector

Second-hand (adj)

having had a previous owner; not new

a ~ device/gadget/accessory/book/clothing/goods/car/

computer/ knowledge;

syn. pre-owned

Smart (adj)

having or showing quick wit and intelligence; (of a device) programmed so as to be capable of some independent action

~ watch/phone/board/house/

TV/ application/interface;

smartness (n), smartly (adv);

syn. clever, intelligent

ant. dumb, stupid, imbecile

Speakers (n)

the part of a radio, CD player, etc. which the sound comes out of

high-quality/durable ~;

upgrade/(dis)connect/configure the ~

Swap (v)

(coll.) give sth to sb in exchange for sth else

~ gadgets/accessories/ identity/deal/ideas;

syn. trade, exchange

Tablet (n)

a small, flat computer that is controlled by touching the screen or by using a special pen

case/accessories/computer/PC/ pen/phone; digitizer/graphic ~;

upgrade/configure/furbish a ~;

Cf: I-pod, I-pad

Touch (v)

come into or be in physical contact with; manipulate sth by pressure and movement of fingers on a screen

~ pad/screen; multi ~; touch (n): a ~ on/of sb’s hand/shoulder; manipulate sth at the ~of the key;

(un)touchable (adj), touchy (adj);

syn. stroke

Upgrade (v)

improve a computer or another machine by using the most recent developments so as to make it more powerful or effective

~ (a) computer/gadget/skills/policy/ system/package/standard/security/ phone; upgrade (n): software/

price/network ~;

syn. improve

ant. downgrade

Cf. update, refurbish

Wearable (adj)

a computer or other electronic device that is small or light enough to be worn or carried on one’s body

(a) ~ computer/device/clothes/ shades/gadget; wear (v), (un)wearability (n);

ant. unwearable

Cf. portable

Webcam (n)

a device used for video input

a ~ leans/image/software; a wireless ~;

install/upgrade/replace a ~;

webcamming (n)

1. Technology dictionary, Technopedia. Available: http://www.techopedia.com/definition [Accessed: 20 Oct. 2015]

2. Computer glossary, Techtarget dictionary and encyclopedia. [Online]. Available: http://bnc.bl.uk/saraWeb.php?qy=best+practices&mysubmit=Go [Accessed: 24 Oct. 2015]

3. Online tech dictionary for IT professionals, IT Business Edge. [Online]. Available: http://www.webopedia.com/ [Accessed: 22 Oct. 2015]

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. upgrade

2. sensor

3. display

3. monitor

4. connect

5. swap

6. gadget

7. smart

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. conceal

2. wearable

3. input

4. clever

5. downgrade

6. assist

7. upgrade

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

optician, optics

digitized

wear

(dis)connectedly

monitor

assistance/ant

(un)resolved

(ir)resolute

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

digital

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

second-hand

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

tablet

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

speakers

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. upgrade

A. a device that holds an earphone and a microphone in place on a person's head

2. headset

B. one of the individual dots that make up a graphical image

3. tablet

C. improve computer or other machine by using the most recent developments to make it more powerful or effective

4. resolution

D. stored as numbers or electronic signals

5. digital

E. a small, flat computer that is controlled by touching the screen or by using a special pen

6. pixel

F. owned or used by someone else before you

7. second-hand

G. density of pixels, measured by the number of dots per inch

Activity 6. Insert prepositions:

1. Today, our lives are filled ___ all manner of gadgets, gizmos and convenience goods.

2. The company has no plans to move ___ the growing market of digital applications.

3. A new service enables you to purchase/reserve your tickets ___ Facsimile.

4. In the United States, there is a discernable preference ___ products with the technological appeal of a ‘gadget’.

5. He was charged ___ murder.

6. Who is __ charge ___ the department?

7. I have not subscribed ___ this magazine.

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. input – output

A. general and specific

2. MP3 – compression

B. cause and effect

3. label - barcode

C. contrast

4. gadget overuse – gadget fatigue

D. equivalence

5. smart - intelligent

E. part and whole

6. computer – netbook

F. method and purpose

7. alphabet – the Braille system

Activity 8. Decode Steve Jobs’ saying about computer device and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/code/BuildCryptogram.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

1. compact disk– blue ray

2. device – gadget

3. library – archive

4. restore – recover

5. overwrite – format

6. netbook – laptop

7. resolution – pixel

Activity 10. Say what the following is used for. Give examples:

1. barcode

2. Braille

3. facsimile machine

4. flash memory

5. headset

6. MP3

7. Webcam

Activity 11. Say when and why the following is done:

1. digitization

2. faxing

3. flash memory

4. charging

5. swapping

6. optimization

7. upgrading

Activity 12. Say what can be… and how:

1. archived

2. backed up

3. compressed

4. formatted

5. recovered

6. retrieved

7. upgraded

Activity 13. Write a short report about the latest gadget, device or appliance.

Activity 14. Create a survey of students’ favorite devices/gadgets. Make a graph illustrating the results.

Activity 15. Discuss: Today young people are very eager to get the latest models of different gadgets. What do you think their reasons are? What are the dis/advantages of getting ahead with the most up-to-date technology?

TEST

1

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “gadget – smartphone”: a) cause and effect b) general and specific c) method and purpose d) part and whole

2

One of the individual dots that make up a graphical image is known as (a) ___. a) resolution b) retina display c) brightness d) pixel

3

A device used for displaying an image on a screen, as from a transparent slide or film is known as a ___. a) hologram b) projector c) webcam d) monitor

4

All of these mean “a mechanism or a piece of equipment designed to perform a number of functions” EXCEPT FOR: a) charger b) gizmo c) device d) gadget

5

All of these are output devices EXCEPT FOR:

a) speaker b) headset c) microphone d) Braille embosser

6

All of these gadgets have rear cameras EXCEPT FOR:

a) MP3, b) smartphone c) I-pad d) tablet

7

All of these collocate with the adjective “digital” EXCEPT FOR:

a) divide b) time c) age d) certificate

8

All of these collocate with the adjective “optical” EXCEPT FOR:

a) cable b) media c) disk d) pixel

9

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “show – conceal”:

a) cause and effect b) general and specific c) contrast d) method and purpose

10

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “webcam – input”:

a) cause and effect b) general and specific c) contrast d) method and purpose

11

Cartographic data consist of ___ maps, that is, maps converted to numerical form.

a) digital b) digit c) digitized d) digitally

12

Once again, many thanks for your ____ in this matter.

a) assistant b) assistance c) assistive d) assist

13

All of these are wearable devices EXCEPT FOR: a) camera b) Google glasses c) digital helmet d) Braille embosser

14

A person who is obsessed with his electronic gadgets is called a gadget ____.

a) freak b) monitor c) gizmo d) fatigue

15

The part of a radio, CD player, etc. which the sound comes out of is known as a ___. a) speaker b) headset c) lens d) video card

16

Hackers can manipulate bank accounts ___ a keystroke.

a) with b) at c) in d) by

17

The bank imposed a penalty ___ the manager for data diddling.

a) on b) for c) to d) with

18

Mark the odd word: a) upgrade b) improve c) optimize d) promote

19

To get regular updates one has to subscribe ___ this publication.

a) to b) for c) – d) in

20

My visually impaired junior assistant helped the group get started on the ____ alphabet. a) Braille b) Brailled c) Brailling d) Brailles


Module 4. HARDWARE

Term

Definition

Usage

Battery (n)

a hardware component that supplies power to a device, enabling it to work without a power cord

~ case/life/level/capacity/pack; portable/external ~ pack; be powered by/run on/use/put/work on ~;

syn. power unit, power supply

Board (n)

a piece of fiberglass or other material upon which an array of computer chips is mounted

memory/mother/system/circuit ~;

replace/dust/upgrade the ~;

boardable (adj), board-like (adj),

board (v)

Break (v)

disconnect or interrupt; stop working, through wear or damage, make or become inoperative:

~ the circuit/silence/a habit/a record; break (n): ~ time/point; make/have/give/take a ~;

breakage (n), (un/non)breakable (adj), breakably (adv);

Cf. downtime, uptime

Card (n)

a piece of thick, stiff paper or thin pasteboard, used for writing or printing on; a circuit board that can be inserted in a computer to add extra facilities or memory

~ cage/reader; binary/SD/ punched/graphic/sound/video ~; install/upgrade/pay by/put sth on/use a ~; carder (n)

Chip (n)

a small piece of silicon or other semi-conductive material on which circuits can be placed

~ set/density/card/socket; memory ~;

install/upgrade/replace a ~; chipper (n), chipping (n), chipped (adj), (un)chippable (adj)

Bluetooth (n)

a standard for a short-range wireless interconnection of mobile phones, computers and other electronic devices

connection/speaker/

headphones/ headsets/adapter;

transfer/connect/send via ~

Convert (v)

change into sth of a different form or property

~(a/n) number/audio/format/graphics/video/data/document/input;

converter (n) ~ cable/box/software, AD ~; convertible (adj): ~ data/file/image/audio/video;

syn. transform, change

Computer (n)

an electronic device designed for performing operations on data at a high speed

~ animation/architecture/fraud/

graphics/games; run/use/switch on/off/log onto/off/boot up/start up/shut down/reboot/restart a ~; super/mini/mainframe/micro-~computerized (adj):

system/information/facility/

tool/ database/journal/record

CPU (abbr)

Central processing unit

the part of a computer in which operations are controlled and executed

the ~ cooler/fan/slot/technology/ system; upgrade/(un)install the ~

Configuration (n)

an arrangement of parts or elements in a particular form, figure, or combination; the particular choice and interconnection of hardware items that make up a particular computer system

~ standard/panel/processor/chip;

(re/mis)configure (v): ~ a system/hardware/software;

configurational (adj), configurative (adj), configurationally (adv)

Component (n)

a part or element of a larger whole, especially a part of a machine or vehicle, software or hardware

architecture/basic/important/major/essential/principal/engine/

electronic/ key/software/system ~; subcomponent (n), componential (adj);

syn. element, part, piece, bit, constituent, ingredient

Crash (n)

(of a machine, a business, etc.) a sudden drop in value or failure; the sudden and complete failure of a disk drive

market/public/financial ~;

major/serious/system ~; cause a ~;

crasher (n);

syn. break down

Cycle (n)

a single set of hardware operations, especially that by which memory is accessed and an item is transferred to or from it, to the point at which the memory may be accessed again

~ stealing/time/path; machine ~;

go through/complete/repeat a ~;

(re)cycle (v), cyclic (adj),

recycling (n)

Decoder (n)

a device capable of converting audio or video signals into a different form, for example from digital to analogue

~ chip/circuit/box/apparatus/board;

audio/video/satellite/binary ~;

decode (v): ~ a message/signal/ command/ language/symbol/text

ant. encode(r)

Downtime (n)

the period of time when sth is not in operation, especially as a result of a malfunction

minimize/schedule/eliminate/reduce ~;

syn. dead time

ant. uptime

Drive (n)

an electromechanical device that reads from and writes to disks

CD-ROM/disk/DVD/SSD/HDD/ floppy/hard/zip/optical/magnetic/ hybrid ~; driver (n): CD-ROM/software/printer ~; (non)drivable (adj), drive (v); driving (adj): a ~ force

Expand (v)

become or make larger or more extensive

~ from/to; expandability (n),expandable (adj), expansion (n): ~ slot;

syn. extend, enlarge

ant. shrink

Fault (n)

a defect in a hardware device or component

detection/diagnosis/tree analysis ~; have/diagnose/overlook/discover/find/identify/locate a ~; faulty (adj): ~ wire/picture/perception/content/brake/ program/device

syn. defect, flaw, imperfection

Joystick (n)

a manual control or cursor device, as one attached to a computer or a video game

~ port/button; analog ~;

(dis)connect/upgrade/replace a ~

Key (n)

a manually activated mechanism on a keyboard used for entering a character or command into a computer system; a field in a record which is used to identify that record uniquely

~board/pad/stroke; alt/arrow/backspace/control/ delete/escape/function/return/

shift ~; hit/hold down/press/touch a(the) ~; keyed (v), keying (v)

Laser (n)

a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation

~ head/pen/surgery/storage devices/technology/lens/disk/printer/beam/ treatment/gun/light;

a powerful ~; use a ~; burn a disc with a ~

Maintain (v)

cause or enable (a condition or situation) to continue; correct or prevent faults in hardware

~ (a) process/stability/balance/ standard; be difficult/easy to ~;

maintenance (n): preventative/ regular/need/proper ~;~ costs/services; maintainable (adj)

syn. keep (in a working order)

Memory (n)

the faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information; the part of a computer in which data or program instructions can be stored for retrieval

have ~ for sth; (non)volatile/poor/bad/ excellent/visual/dynamic/static/ cache/computer/short-term/long-term/random-access ~; be stored in ~; evoke/revive/bring back/impair/ enhance the ~ of sth; commit to/recite from ~; come with 512Mb ~; if my ~ serves me right; memorable (adj), memorial (n); immemorial (adj): from time ~; memorize (v);

syn. recall, retention

Cf. RAM, ROM

Modem (n)

modulator and demodulator

a piece of equipment that is used to send information from a computer through a telephone line, cable or other link

connect via (a/the) ~; an external/internal/dial-up ~;

use/provide a ~

Monitor (n)

a device used for observing, checking, or keeping a continuous record of sth; a screen which displays an image generated by a computer

color/CCTV/computer ~; display sth on a/the ~;

monitor (v): ~ a process/compliance with sth; monitoring (n)

Mouse (n)

a cursor control device consisting of a hand-held control box used as a locator

click/double click/move/use a(the) ~; ~ button/click/cursor/pointer/pad

Operate (v)

function in a proper or a particular way

~ a computer/procedure/system/ device; be able to ~; operation (n): computer/logic/machine ~ ; ~ table/ register/code; operational (adj), operationally (adv), operator (n);

syn. run

Periphery (n)

the outer limits or edge of an area or object

peripheral (adj): ~ device/processor/ vision/system/feature/card/detail/ expansion; peripherality (n); peripheralize (v); peripherally (adv);

syn. outer edge, margin

ant. center

Platform (n)

a raised level surface on which people or things can stand; a group of computers that are compatible with each other and can run the same software

microcomputer/mobile computing ~;

mount sth/appear/stand on a ~;

platformer (n);

syn. stage

Port (n)

a connection in a computer to which an outside (peripheral) device can be attached

serial/parallel/USB/FireWire/ thunderbolt/Ethernet power ~; portable (adj): a ~ television/device/computer/ cassette/player

Printer (n)

an output device for printing text or images, especially the one linked to a computer

a(the) ~ cable/port/ribbon/driver/icon;

photo/laser/inkjet/impact/multifunction ~; control/drive/connect a(the) ~;

(re)print (v): ~ a document/photo /certificate/publication; printout (n)

Process (n)

an instance of a program being executed in a multitasking operating system, typically running in an environment that protects it from other processes

the update/boot/accelerate/launch a ~; process (v): ~ information/code/

data/oil; processor (n): data/audio/

graphics/word/multicore ~; processable (adj);

syn. procedure

Remove (v)

move sth from where it is; lift, push, transfer, or carry away, or from one place to another

~ a(n) scratch/virus/program/ application/disc;

removable (adj): a ~ disk;

removability (n);

syn. displace

Repair (v)

restore sth to a good condition after damage

~ (a) hardware/damage/gadget/device;

be in need of/need/require/undergo ~; repairer (n); non/repairable (adj); irreparable (adj): ~ damage/loss;

syn. fix;

ant. damage

Repeat (v)

do sth again or more than once

~ a(n) command/syntax/entry;

repetition (n), repetitive (adj), repeater (n), repeatable (adj), repeatability (n);

Cf. redo

Rotate (v)

move or cause to move in a circle round an axis or a center

allow sth to ~; ~ in a(n) anti-/clockwise direction; rotation (n), rotative (adj): ~ engine/motion; rotating (adj), rotary (adj),

rotatory (adj)

Scan (v)

look quickly but not very thoroughly through (a document or other text) in order to identify relevant information; convert into digital form for storage or processing on a computer

~ a(n) picture/document/pattern/page/ error; ~ sth into a computer; have/give sb/take a ~;

scannable (adj), scanner (n): film/fingerprint ~

Sector (n)

an area or portion that is distinct from others; a subdivision of a track on a magnetic disk

~ configuration; divide sth into ~s; major/public/private/informal/ formal/administration/rural/

urban ~; sectoral (adj)

syn. area, locality

Server (n)

a computer that provides services to another computer

~ program/software/page;

computer/file/web/client/disk ~;

manage/control/protect/maintain/keep (on)/provide a ~

Unit (n)

a device that has a specified function, especially one forming part of a complex mechanism; a single manufactured item

a control/execution/functional/

logic/ processing ~;

break sth down into/divide sth into ~s; (un)install/(dis)assemble a ~

1. Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. [Online]. Available: http://www.oxfordreference.com. [Accessed: 16 Sept. 2015]

2. Oxford Dictionaries. Language matters. Oxford Unversity Press. [Online]. Available: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com. [Accessed: 20 Sept. 2015.

3. Computer dictionary. Computer Hope. [Online]. Available: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/jd.htm [Accessed: 20 Sept. 2015]

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. break down

2. remove

3. decoder

4. repair

5. convert

6. defect

7. battery

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. configure

2. damage

3. periphery

4. master

5. encode

6. uptime

7. shrink

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

irreparably

operate

repetition

breakably

processable

configure

expandable

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

a joystick

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

a laser

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

operate a

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

Process

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. expand

A. a circuit board that can be inserted in a computer to give extra facilities or memory

2. repair

B. become or make larger or more extensive

3. card

C. a computer that provides services to another computer

4. server

D. restore sth to a good condition after damage

5. fault

E. a defect in a hardware device or component

6. sector

F. the controlling unit in a pair of linked machines

7. master

G. an area or portion that is distinct from others

Activity 6. Insert prepositions:

1. Insert the disk ___ drive A.

2. The information was held ___ computer for regular operations.

3. You can send it to me ___ Bluetooth.

4. This computer may run __ battery for 12 hours

5. The printers are compatible ___ HP LaserJet printers, using the same HP Printer Command Language.

6. The decoder converts the sequence of beeps back ___ a code that identifies the caller.

7. A scanner or digitizer can be imported ___ DesignaKnit and converted into stitch patterns.

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. maintain – destroy

A. general and specific

2. printer – output

B. cause and effect

3. CPU – motherboard

C. contrast

4. computer - minicomputer

D. method and purpose

5. gadget - joystick

E. part and whole

6. operate – run

F. equivalence

7. overuse – crash

Activity 8. Decode Ken Olsen’s saying about the hardware system and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/cryptogramSetupForm.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

1. CPU – motherboard

2. card – flash drive

3. Bluetooth – WiFi

4. convert – configure

5. fault – crash

6. gamepad – joystick

7. modem – router

Activity 10. Say what can be… and how:

1. converted

2. expanded

3. processed

4. repaired

5. scanned

6. repeated

7. maintained

Activity 11. Say what the following is used for:

1. card

2. chip

3. Bluetooth

4. CPU

5. joystick

6. modem

7. port

Activity 12. Say when and why the following is done:

1. breakdown

2. conversion

3. downtime

4. cycle

5. maintenance

6. operation

7. configuration

Activity 13. Speak on the latest trends in the hardware system development.

Activity 14. Brainstorm the current issues of e-waste nowadays. What makes it hazardous? What are the possible solutions?

Activity 15. Write a paragraph commenting on the statement in Activity 8 above.

TEST

1

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “fix - damage”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) contrast

2

What is the logical relationship between “output device” and “printer”:

a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole

d) equivalence

3

What is the logical relationship between “CPU” and “mother board”:

a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole

d) equivalence

4

The information was held ___ computer for regular operations.

a) into b) in c) on d) to

5

A piece of fiberglass or other material upon which an array of computer chips is mounted is known as a ___. a) mother card b) transistor c) card d) board

6

All of these are input devices EXCEPT FOR:

a) webcam b) keyboard c) printer d) mouse

7

All of these are output devices EXCEPT FOR:

a) monitor b) projector c) speaker d) webcam

8

Mark the odd word: a) break-up b) break off c) breakdown d) break in

9

All of these collocate with the word “process” EXCEPT FOR:

a) information b) password c) data d) output

10

The period of time when sth is not in operation, especially as a result of a malfunction is called ___time. a) up b) on c) down d) over

11

Volatile memory, contrary to ____-volatile memory requires power to maintain the stored information. a) non-b) un c) im d) in

12

All of these are synonymous to the word “maintain” EXCEPT FOR:

a) keep b) regain c) sustain d) preserve

13

All of these can follow the noun “printer” EXCEPT FOR:

a) cable b) port c) ribbon d) board

14

The decoder at the other end converts the sequence of beeps back ___ a code which identifies the caller. a) to b) in c) on d) into

15

The manufacturing ___ is relatively simple.

a) procedures b) proceeding c) process d) proceedings

16

Mark the odd word:

a) rotary b) rotative c) rotatory d) rotation

17

The broken machine needs ____.

a) despair b) compare c) repair d) impair

18

That accident involved a truck with ____ brakes.

a) fault b) faultless c) faulty d) faultness

19

The company claims to have reduced machine ___.

a) downtime b) time c) uptime d) time out

20

The part of a computer in which operations are controlled and executed is known as (a) ___. a) Bluetooth b) Wi-Fi c) CPU d) server


Module 5. SOFTWARE

Term

Definition

Usage

Add (v)

join or put sth in(to) sth else so as to increase the size, number, or amount

~ a(n) function/program/text/image;

~ on program/weight;

addition (n): in ~ to; additive (n);

added (adj); additional (adj);

syn. augment

ant. subtract, deduct

Application (n)

a formal request to an authority; a set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specific purpose which are unable to run on their own and depend on the system software to execute

documentation/graphics/presentation /spreadsheet and statistical/data management/file management/ information and reference software/education and training/entertainment /accounting and finance/business ̴ ;

~ of force; develop/set up/uninstall /update an ~; apply (v): ~ for a job/post/position; applied (adj): ~ science/mathematics; (non)applicable (adj); applicational (adj)

BIOS (abbr)

Basic Input/Output System

the program code and data stored in the permanent memory and used for booting process

~ setup;

embedded/flash ~;

display the ~ information

Boot (v)

kick sth hard in a specified direction; turn on a computer and get into the operating system

~ a(n) accelerator/application/band/computer/code/disc/drive/menu/sector/virus; booting (n): the ~ drive/environment /procedure/ process/sequence/stage;

bootable (adj): a ~ CD/drive/diskette; reboot (v);

syn. reset, (re)start

Catalogue (n)

an itemized list of titles, course offerings, or articles for exhibition or sale, including descriptive information or illustrations; a publication containing such a list

a ~ code/of samples/name; enter in/make a ~ of; catalogue (v): ~ business/buyers/by authors;

cataloguing (n): ~ problem; catalogued (adj), cataloguer (n);

syn. archive, directory

Cluster (n)

a group of similar things or people positioned or occurring closely together; a group of connected computers; the smallest managed section of a hard drive that holds a file

cluster (adj): ~ address/administrator/ administration/allocation/acceleration/bomb; form/organize ~(s);

clustered (adj): ~ access/database/index;

syn. array, bunch

Compatible (adj)

able to exist or occur together without problems or conflict; matching the previous versions of software, operating systems or hardware devices

backward/downward~;application/browser/circuit/

blood;

syn. adaptable, appropriate, consistent; (in)compatibility (n);

ant. incompatible

Context (n)

the circumstances that form a setting for an event, statement, or idea, in terms of which it can be fully understood

consider/examine/look at/see/ understand/view sth in the ~ of; general/larger/overall/wider/ educational/regional/historical/cultural ~; define/describe the ~;

contextual (adj): ~ analysis/approach;

context (adj): ~ switch/menu/area/ analysis/activation;

syn. background, setting

ant. foreground

Desktop (adj)

(of office appliances, such as photocopiers and printers) which can be fitted on top of a desk

~ publishing/computer/apparatus/computer/access/application/

analysis/environment/accessories/configuration;

ant. portable/wearable (computer)

Design (v)

decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), by making its detailed drawing

~ a book/building/curriculum;

redesign (v); design (n): ~ approval/arrangement/automation; designer (n): ~ fashion/clothes /label/aids;

syn. architecture, layout

Driver (n)

a person who drives a vehicle; a program that controls the operation of a device such as a printer or a scanner

a(n) device/hardware/software/ upgrade /test ~; (un)install/update a ~;

drive (v): ~ a car/vehicle/at sth; ~ innovation; driverless (adj); driving (adj, n): the main/principal ~ force of/behind sth; ~ license, reckless ~

Embed (v)

fix (an object) firmly and deeply in a surrounding mass; incorporate sth (a text, a code, a picture) within the body of a file or document

~ a(n) channel/file/chip/structure/ function/system/operation/ technology/software in(to) sth; embedding (n), embeddable (adj), embedded (adj): ~ OS;

syn. enclose, insert, incorporate

Emulate (v)

match or surpass (a person or achievement), typically by imitation; reproduce the function or action of a different computer, software system, etc.

~ a sound/action/design/environment/ one’s father/sb’s hairstyle/sb’s success;

emulation (n), emulator (n),

emulative (adj);

syn. imitate, copy, follow sb’s suit

Encapsulate (v)

enclose sth in or as if in a capsule; provide an interface for a piece of software or hardware to allow or simplify access for the user

~ a layer/information/program/

code; encapsulation (n),

encapsulated (adj)

Function (n)

an activity that is natural to or the purpose of sb/sth; a basic task of a computer, especially one that corresponds to a single instruction from the user

built-in/system/value/virtual/ annual/social ~; fulfill/perform/attend a ~; ~ procedure/editor/reference/ template; function (v): ~ as a robot/ normally; (non/dis)functional (adj), functionally (adv), functionality (n);

syn. feature, activity, operation

Icon (n)

sb or sth regarded as a representative symbol or as worthy of veneration; a symbol or graphic representation on a screen of a program, option, or window

pop/rock/fashion ~; ~ bar/control/ editor/-based/-driven;

program/document ~; create/change an ~; iconic (adj): ~ structure/path/interface /model;

syn. picture, symbol

Implement (v)

put a decision, plan, agreement, etc. into effect

~  a(n) scenario/action/plan/ agreement; implementation (n): program ~; ~ chart/file/defect/error/ pattern; implement (n): garden ~ (s); implementer(or) (n); implementable (adj); implementability (n);

syn. achieve, carry out

Install (v)

place or fix equipment or machinery in position ready for use; copy all of the necessary files to run a software program on a computer

~ (a) software/driver/process; installer (n); installing (n); installed (adj): ~ equipment/capacity/base;

installation (n): ~ aids/company/costs/ directions/instruction/manual/process/program/tool/wizard; installability (n); installable (adj): ~ device/driver/ RAM;

syn. put in place, set

ant. uninstall

Interface (n)

a point where two systems, subjects, organizations, etc. meet and interact; a device or program enabling a user to communicate with a computer

system/program/graphical/object/user/functional ~; ~ adapter/agent/area/ card/channel/connection/ element/design/functionality/kit/

protocol; interface (v): ~ with another system or person, interfaced (adj); interfacial (adj): ~ connection/failure/ joint/resistance/tension; interfacing (n): ~ capability/circuit/protocol/ software;

syn. interact with, connect with;

Cf. GUI (Graphical User Interface)

WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer)

Iteration (n)

repetition of a process or utterance; repetition of a function or process in a computer program; a new version of a piece of computer hardware or software

~ cycle/algorithm/function/factor/ index/loop/mode; iterate (v): ~ a(n) operation/function/ process; iterative (adj): ~ algorithm/analysis/approach/ code/ calculation/circuit/formula/ function/ filter/method/network/ procedure/ technique; reiterate (v);

iterating (adj); iterated (adj): ~ code/form/graph/operator;

syn. repetition

Kernel (n)

the central or most important part of sth; the most basic level or core of an operating system, responsible for resource allocation, file management, and security

~ debugger/call/function/mode/driver; ~ of security/action/integral;

program/real-time/separable/expanded /security ~; address/define a ~;

syn. center, core

ant. periphery

Launch (v)

set (a newly built ship or boat) afloat for the first time with an official ceremony; send (a missile, satellite, or spacecraft) on its course; start or set in motion (an activity or program)

~ a campaign/program/vessel/ warship/rocket/spaceship;

launch (n): a ~ angle/power/team/ window; launcher (n): a waveguide ~; launching (n): a ~ pad/basin/fiber/rail/ site/tower; launchpad (n); launchway (n): ~ operation;

syn. start, commence

ant. end, finish

License (n)

 an agreement that allows sb or sth to use a service or perform an action as long as they agree to the terms provided therein

obtain/revoke a ~;

grant a ~ to sb;

~ agreement/fee/key/contract/holder; ~ -free; shrink-wrap/group/ corporate ~; licensed (adj): ~ software/product/ dealer/party; licensee (n); licenser (or) (n); licensing (adj): ~ procedure/scheme, service;

syn. certificate, warrant, permit

Menu (n)

the food available or to be served in a restaurant or at a meal; a list from which to choose; a list of commands or facilities displayed on screen

icon-driven/quick access/drop-down/context/pull-down/pop-up/application/feature/cascading ~; ~ box/button/access/choice/ entry/key/-driven/-guided/type/bar;

click on/choose from/change the ~

OS (abbr)

Operating System

the software that supports a computer's basic functions, such as scheduling tasks, executing applications, and controlling peripherals

failure/design/kernel/management; server/user/home edition/virtual/ multiuser/multitasking/ multiprocessing/mobile ~; (un)install/update/change/reconfigure/be compatible with an ~

Package (n)

an object or group of objects wrapped in paper or packed in a box; software that is bunched together to make a complete set

~ advertising/contract/deal/file/ holiday/module/offer/paper/tour; ~ of subcontract works; build/create a ~; packaged (adj): ~ software/system/ unit; packager (n); packaging (n): ~ density/film/machine/process/

robot;

syn. kit, parcel, container

Pointer (n)

a long, thin piece of metal on a scale or dial which moves to indicate a figure or position; a movable indicator on a computer screen identifying the point that will be affected by input from the user

~ device/instrument/operation/ token/tool/-driven/-linked;

screen/control/base/vertical/ address ~; point (n): boiling/freezing/hot ~; bring up/raise/concede/yield/cover/discuss/ emphasize/stress/underscore a ~; speak to the ~; at a ~; on this ~; point (v): ~ out problems/errors;

pointless (adj): ~ argument;

syn. cursor, arrow, issue

Recover (v)

return to a normal state of health, mind, or strength; stabilize or take a computer or electronic device back to a point when it was stable; restore a deleted file

~ command/function/from an error; recovery (n): system ~, ~ bug/control/ data/factor/node/period/process/rate/ work/time; recoverer (n): program ~;

recovered (adj): ~ file/heat/oil/signal;

recovering (n): ~ time/probability;

(ir)recoverable (adj): ~ error/failure/ reserves; (ir)recoverability (n);

syn. reclaim, regain, restore

Release (v)

allow or enable to escape from confinement; set free; make (a film, recording, or other product) available to the public

~ a film/disc/book/button/

prisoner;

release (n): ~ date/key/node, ~ of pressure/information/fluid;

released (adj): ~ capacity/state/version; releaser (n);

syn. (set) free, let go, issue

Script (n)

handwriting as distinct from print; an automated series of instructions carried out in a specific order; a small non-compiled program written for a scripting language or the command interpreter

~ file/language/font; command/machine/writer ~;

(re)write/create/compose/delete/edit a ~; scripting (n): ~ engine/ programming language; inscription (n), inscribe (v)

Software (n)

the programs and other operating information used by a computer

trial/open source/bundled/commercial/ edutainment/public domain/ encryption/licensed ~;

(un)install/configure/release/maintain/design/debug/distribute/implement/ manage/control/test ~; ~ bug/cache/ command/component/configuration /debugging/design/distribution/ engineering/failure/implementation/ life-cycle/management/ piracy/publisher/ utility; ~-based controller/design;

syn. program

ant. hardware

Specification (n)

an act of identifying sth precisely or of stating a precise requirement; description of an invention accompanying an application for a patent

~ change/deficiency/error/limit/ requirements/review/statement/writer; ~ of contract/cargo/tolerances;

specify (v): ~ the(a) needs/conditions/ offer/diagnosis/extension; specificity (n): ~ of test/construction; specified (adj): ~ behavior/criteria/constraints/ conditions/load/number/quality/ temperature/time;

syn. stipulation, parameter, condition

System (n)

a complex whole; a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network; a group of related programs or hardware units or both, especially when dedicated to a single application

requirements/engineer/

interface/analyst/area/approach/architecture/board/bus/code/console/control/crash/debugging/design/disc/element/failure/library/memory/menu/registry;

(re)set/start/boot/(un)install/update/ change/(re)configure/access a ~; application/ computer/back-up/binary/ control/ error-correcting/detecting/ information ~;

syn. scheme, structure

ant. chaos, disorder

Task (n)

a piece of work to be done or undertaken; an activity or a piece of work which CPU has to perform, usually as part of a larger project

active/current ~; perform/set/ fulfill/complete/carry out/ cancel/abandon/undertake/ assign/entrust sb with a ~;

~-based approach/allocation/ activation/assignment/group/list/ plan/queue; ~ scheduler/priority/ queue/register/table/bar;

syn. assignment, undertaking

Cf. multitasking

Update (v)

make sth more modern or up-to-date; download a software file that contains refreshed information and various fixes

~ a status/software/file;

update (n): news/automatic/ manual/timely ~, ~ rate/time;

updated (adj): ~ program/antivirus/file /database/information/version/sample; updater (n): table ~; updating (n): batch/file/memo/screen ~;

syn. modernize, renovate

ant. outdated, out-of-date

Utility (n)

the state of being useful, profitable, or beneficial; system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer

public/debugging/disk compression/ maintenance/setup ~; ~ allocation/ area/core/computing/device/ equipment/function/kernel;

(un)install/update/change a ~;

public ~ies; utilize (v): ~ fully/partially; utilizable (adj): ~ waste; utilization (n): ~ coefficient/ factor/level/parameter/property/rate; utilized (adj); utilizer (n);

syn. service

Cf. recycle

Version (n)

a particular form of sth differing in certain respects from an earlier form or other forms of the same type of thing; a particular release of a piece of computer software

demo/beta/active/trial/professional/ crippled/licensed ~; ~ control/ management/tracking;

release/copy a ~; versioning (n);

syn. form, variant

Widget (n)

 an application, or a component of an interface that enables a user to perform a function or access a service; an additional feature or 

extension to a software  program, OS GUI, or a web page, which enables additional features

~ library/set; un(install)/update/change /reconfigure a ~;

syn. gizmo, apparatus, appliance, device

-ware (n)

manufactured articles of a specified type; type of software

share/demo/ad/group/spy/cripple/crap/ mal/free/stone/table/kitchen/

metal ~;

syn. commodity

Window (n)

an opening in the wall or roof of a building or vehicle, to admit light or air; a framed area on a display screen for viewing information

~ control/frame/menu/space/width; ~-based OS; ~ of vulnerability; acceptance/contact/display/help/ hidden/graphics/pop-up/welcome/ active/alert/application ~; overlapping ~s; bring up a ~; extend beyond the edge of the ~; windowed (adj): ~ address/registers; windowing (n): ~ environment/software/system;

windowless (adj): ~ photo-multiplication

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. boot

2. catalogue

3. design

4. embed

5. emulate

6. function

7. icon

8. implement

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. add

2. context

3. install

4. kernel

5. launch

6. recover

7. release

8. system

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

application

installable

iteratively

pointer

update

implemented

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

cluster

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

desktop

Adjective

Target vocabulary unit

interface

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

software

Adjective

Target vocabulary unit

utility

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

specification

Adjective

Target vocabulary unit

version

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. shareware

A. adjunct software that displays advertising while the program it is attached to is running

2. software

B. software designed to facilitate collective working by a number of different users

3. freeware

C. software that self-installs on computers and tracks the user's Internet use, mainly for marketing purposes

4. adware

D. software that is available free of charge and often distributed informally for evaluation, after which a fee may be requested for continued use

5. groupware

E. software specifically designed to disrupt or damage a computer system

6. spyware

F. the programs and other operating information used by a computer

7. malware

G. software that is available without any payment

Activity 6. Insert prepositions

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. context – foreground

A. general and specific

2. icon - interface

B. contrast

3. application – graphics software

C. equivalence

4. core - periphery

D. part and whole

5. update – security

E. method and purpose

6. incompatibility - failure

F. cause and effect

7. Interface – GUI

Activity 8. Decode Bill Gates’ saying about software and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/code/BuildCryptogram.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

GNU - closed source software

application software - utility

BIOS – OS

shareware - freeware

input – output

emulate – imitate - simulate

boot – reboot

Activity 10. Give examples of the following software types. Add other types of -ware that you know:

1. shareware

2. software

3. freeware

4. adware

5. groupware

6. spyware

7. malware

Activity 11. Describe a typical program interface, its components and characteristics.

Activity 12. Name some reasons why software should be updated. Illustrate these reasons with examples from your own experience.

Activity 13. Arrange the software layers below in a descending order from top to bottom; comment on the functionality of each software layer:

Operating system

Application software

BIOS

Drivers

Kernel

Utility

Activity 14. Say what types of application software given below you have installed in your computer or smart phone:

1. documentation software

2. graphics software

3. presentation software

4. file management software

5. education and training software

6. entertainment software

7. accounting and finance software

Activity 15. Write a paragraph on software compatibility by covering such aspects as: definition, importance, types and examples.

TEST

1

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “–core - periphery”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) contrast

2

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “application software – graphics software”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) part and whole

3

Software that is bunched together to make a complete set is known as (a/n) ___. a) groupware b) package d) adware d) utility

4

Software designed to facilitate collective working by a number of different users is known as (a/n) ___. a) groupware b) spyware d) adware d) shareware

5

Software that is available free of charge and often distributed informally for evaluation, after which a fee may be requested for continued use is known as___. a) malware b) spyware d) adware d) shareware

6

An activity or piece of work which CPU has to perform is known as ___.

a) thread b) task c) script d) function

7

___ is the most basic level or core of an operating system, responsible for resource allocation, file management, and security.

a) kernel b) utility c) periphery d) accessory

8

All of these are types of utilities EXCEPT FOR:

a) presentation b) maintenance c) disc compression d) setup

9

MS Word, Excel, Power Point are examples of ___.

a) applications software b) widgets c) utilities d) OS

10

All of these are interface components EXCEPT FOR:

a) window b) menu c) driver d) icon

11

Mark the odd word: a) design b) architect c) format d) layout

12

Mark the odd word: a) design b) construct c) layout d) architect

13

The queries can be framed using an ______ version of the existing Database Assistance tool. a) updated b) update c) updater d) updating

14

All of these collocate with the adjective “desktop” EXCEPT FOR:

a) publishing b) computer c) application d) cluster

15

The text extended ____ the edge of the window.

a) from b) beyond c) behind d) after

16

All of these are types of application software EXCEPT FOR:

a) graphics software b) presentation software c) spreadsheet software

d) desktop software

17

Spyware and adware differ mostly by their ___.

a) size b) programming language c) purpose d) price

18

For further details please contact the Institute for ___Language Studies.

a) Applicable b) Applicative c) Applied d) Applicational

19

This is the standard way of ___ data in your program.

a) installing b) embedding c) introducing d) inserting

20

Everyone should be able to design a standard Web page in minutes using the point and click type tools for___ text, graphics and sound.

a) installing b) introducing c) encapsulating d) inserting


Module 6. CYBERSPACE

Term

Definition

Usage

Account (n)

a record or statement of financial expenditure; the means by which a user can access a computer system; an Internet-based entity owned by or assigned to a specific user, but stored in an organization

name/password/access/

balance/restriction/manager/policy/number/ status/ID; administrative/computer/ disabled/user/group/guest/local ~; account (v): ~ for sth, take into ~, on ~ of; on this ~; accountability (n): password ~, accountable (n): ~ to sb; (adv); accounting (n): ~ period/control/data system/device/ machine/management/software

Anonymity (n)

the state of being purposely unknown, concealing one’s identity

processor ~; anonym (n); anonymous (adj): ~ variable/letter/writer/server/ surfing/user;

Cf. pseudonym, alias

Avatar (n)

visual manifestation of a person or idea; a movable icon representing a person in cyberspace or virtual reality graphics

an ~ of selflessness, account/colorful ~; choose/change an ~;

syn. incarnation, embodiment

Block (v)

put an obstacle in the way; keep a troublesome user out of one’s mentions and send them an explicit signal that one wants to have nothing to do with them

~ a(n) file/software/account/site/mobile phone/network/anonymous user/abusing message/signal; block (n): ~ algebra/method/code; ~ of code/flats/shares; building/ control/data/memory/message/queue storage ~; blockage (n): manual/mechanical ~, the ~ factor; blocked (adj), blocker (n),

blockout (n);

syn. barrier, obstacle, impediment, hindrance; hinder, ban

ant. permit, give access, allow

Blog (n)

web + log

a site maintained by an individual or a business with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video

create/maintain/add content to/ contribute to a ~, a ~ client/host/-hosting; corporate/company/ news/ business ~; blogger (n): popular/notorious ~;

(micro)blogging (n): the art of ~;

syn. online journal

Cf. splog (n)=(spam+blog)

Bookmark (n)

a strip of leather, card, etc., used to mark one's place in a book; a record of the address of a file, Internet page, or other data enabling quick access by a user

create/delete/share/follow a ~, a ~ list; bookmarker (n); bookmarking (n): clever/frequent/individual ~;

syn. clip, holder, marker

Browse (v)

survey goods for sale in a leisurely and casual way; read or survey (data files) via a network

~ around the store/through the newspaper; ~ the web/web pages; browse (adj): a ~ list/mode; browser (n): web/popular/heavy ~, ~ interface; browsing (n): web/easy/computer ~; browsable (adj);

syn. surf

Cast (v)

throw something forcefully; cause (light or shadow) to appear on a surface; arrange and present in a specified form or style

~ a(n) smile/net/anchor; ~ back/aside/down/away; ~  doubts/lots; casting (n): life ~; cast (n): web/broad/pod/multi/vod ~;

syn. emit, put on air

Clickbait (n)

enticing readers to click through to the full story with a misleading or sensationalist headline, usually with the goal of generating page views and advertising revenue

~ headlines/titles/news;

clickbaiting (n): engage in ~

CTR (abbr)

Clickthrough rate

a common method of reporting on the number of people who have viewed a message or a piece of content and clicked on an ad or a link

increase/decrease/raise/lower/boost the ~; high/low ~

Cookie (n)

a sweet biscuit; a small identifier file placed on a user’s computer by a Web site, which logs information about the user and their previous/current visits

~ data/file/information/sheet/

verification; ~-enabled browser; delete/steal/spy/create (automatically)/enable/disable/

allow/switch on (off) ~s

Content(s) (n)

sng.: a state of satisfaction; pl.: the material dealt with in a speech, literary work, etc. as distinct from its form or style; information made available by a website or another electronic medium

low fat ~; online ~ providers; be ~ with sth; ~ oneself with sth; time of ~; contentless (adj); contented (adj): feel ~;~ -based coding/information retrieval; ~ -driven document; ~ analysis/decoder /management/filtering/provider ; ~s of a book; table of ~ s; the ~s page/list/directory/ dictionary; ~s of a file/data stream/message; block/ provide/create/show/restrict the ~s

ant. form

Community (n)

a group of people living together in one place, especially one practicing common ownership; a web society uniting people with the same interests, social values and or other particular characteristics

the international/European/virtual/research/information/online/user/AI ~; ~ service/center/college/facilities /health service/worker;

syn. society, group

Creep (v)

move slowly and carefully in order to avoid being heard or noticed; spend an extended period of time looking through someone’s profiles, photos, and videos on social media

~ up to sth/forward/back/

\slowly; creeping (adj); creeper (n): anonymous/irritating/fanatic/addicted ~

syn. lurk

Cf. follow

Crowdfunding (n)

the act of soliciting donations or investments from online users who collectively raise money to support a cause or underwrite a project

vast/urgent/quick/skillful ~ ; try/succeed in/raise money through/ resort to ~

Cyber (adj)

relating to or characteristic of the culture of computers, information technology, and virtual reality

~ age/space/warfare/ crime/life/criminal/offence/theft/ cash/culture/mail/café/sport/ terrorism/citizen/phobia/

security/slacker/speak/squatting/stalking; 

cybernated (adj): ~ humanity; cybernation (n): of the world; cybernaut (n); cybernetic (adj): ~ approach/control/machine/model/ system; cybernetics (n); cyborg (n);

syn. virtual

E- (prf)

indicating the use of electronic data transfer in cyberspace, especially through the Internet

~-mail/book/journal/commerce/ banking/learning/cash/zine/

crime/literacy/business/culture/government/library/payment/publishing/voting

Emoticon (n) Emotion + icon

a representation of a facial expression such as a smile or a frown, formed by various combinations of keyboard characters and used in electronic communications to convey the writer's feelings or intended tone

a(n) strange/(in)appropriate/ (ir)relevant/funny/angry/vertical/ horizontal/sticker ~; send/attach/add/choose an ~;

syn. smiley

FAQ (acr) Frequently asked questions

a text file containing a list of questions and answers relating to a particular subject, esp. the one giving basic information for users of an Internet newsgroup

publish/consult/ignore/look through/find the answer in ~;

Cf. FAQL (frequently asked question list)

Feed (v)

frequently updated content subscription to which allows to read the latest posts or watch the newest videos on a computer or any portable device

latest/abusing/parallel ~; web/news/events/line/power ~; (un)subscribe to a ~

Forum (n)

a meeting or medium where ideas and views on a particular issue can be exchanged; an online discussion site

a(n) discussion/international ~; join/provide a ~ for sb/sth; post sth on a ~; World Telecommunication ~; Independent Software Developers ~; pl. fora

syn. conference, newsgroup

Geotagging (n)

the process of adding location-based metadata to media such as photos, video or online maps

automatic/precise/user’s ~; use/

resort to/refer to/be guided by ~

Link (n)

a relationship between two things or situations; a reference in an electronic document that lets a user display or activate another document or program; a reference to data that the reader can directly follow by clicking

perma/hyper/data/cable/fiber-optic/implicit /logical/transmission/ transport ~; follow/click on/build/ manage/control a ~; a ~ access/address/control/error/file; linked (adj): a ~ list/document/ communication; link-up (n): a live satellite ~; linkable (adj):a ~ cycle; linkability (n): ~ of devices/equipment; linkage (n): external/internal ~;

syn. tie, connection,

(cross-) reference,

Cf. liason

Log (v)

enter (an incident or fact) in the log of a ship or aircraft or in another systematic record; go through the procedures to begin (or conclude) using a computer system

~ in to/out of a server; log (n): a ~ command/entry/file/journal/ message/server; logger (n): site/internet ~; logged (adj): ~ data/drive; logger (n): data/ multichannel/system ~, ~ machine; logging (n): error/executive/failure/ machine time ~, ~ printer/unit;

login (n): user /remote/automatic ~; ~ name/password/directory/ procedure/prompt/command file; disable a ~;

syn. log on/off

Mail (n)

letters and parcels sent by post; electronic mail

e/postal/snail/incoming/daily/direct ~; ~ box/edition/filter/program/ system/server/list/bot/man; send/order by ~; check/receive/redirect/delete/sort out the ~; mailable (adj);

mailing (adj): ~ list/list manager/processor/program;

syn. listserver (listserv)

Meme (n)

an element of a culture or system of behavior that may be passed from one individual to another by imitation; an image with a text, video or link describing a thought, idea, joke, or concept to be shared online

interesting/video/colorful/funny/absurd ~; spread/track/send/ post a ~; memetic (adj): ~ algorithm/code/spread

Media (n)

media (pl.): the main means of mass communication (television, radio, and newspapers) regarded collectively;

medium (sng.): a means by which sth is communicated or expressed; a particular storage container for computer files, such as magnetic tape or a disc

(pl.) civic/social/mass/local/ broadcasting/multi/interactive/

network/communication ~, ~ art/event/ library/studies/processor/-specific;

access/control/adapter/computer/ frequency; ~-capacity/-run/-sized; (sing.) information-carrying/input/output/ interactive/magnetic/recording/ storage/transfer (non)volatile ~; the ~ of instruction

syn. means

Monitor (v)

observe and check the progress or quality of sth over a period of time; observe some activities and measure them against benchmark policies and rules

~ activity/function/signal; monitor (n): black and white/color/CRT/ refreshed/ enhanced RGB/system/ flat-screen/LCD/LED/thin-film/VGA/TV ~; ~ amplifier/display/ mode/signal/switch; monitored (adj); monitoring (n): call/low-battery/performance/security threat/heat/pulse/remote access ~, ~ of production/ performance/tool breakage; ~ equipment/technology/ window;

syn. control, check, audit

Navigate (v)

guide (a vessel or vehicle) over a specified route, especially with difficulty, by using instruments or maps; move around a website, the Internet, etc.

a vessel/around the Web/a car through the traffic; be ~ed by the stars; ~ skillfully; ~; navigable (adj): ~ path/waterway; navigating (adj): ~ officer; navigation (n): electronic ~, ~ aids/air radar/area/button/canal/ computer/control/electronics/ facilities/instrument/kit/support/

satellite; navigational (adj): database/guidance/parameter/ query; navigator (n): television/driver’s/GSM ~

Password (n)

a secret word or a phrase that must be used to gain admission to a place; a string of characters that allows sb access to a computer system

generate/change/supply/enter a ~; multi (single)-user/one-time ~, ~ ageing/authentication/changing/ identification/logout/security/ verification; ~-protected;

Cf. identification, login

Post (v)

send by post; display (a notice) in a public place; make (information) available on the Internet; send (a message) to an Internet bulletin board or newsgroup

~ a message/status; ~ on the wall/Internet/site; ~ in sb’s blog; post (n): place a ~, a ~ bag/boy/card/ box/exchange/office; postal (adj): ~ address/code/service/transaction; send/receive by ~; provocative/clever/funny ~;

syn. mail, correspondence, public message

Cf. poste restante

Site (n)

an area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed; (short for website) an Internet location that maintains one or more web pages

do sth on ~; ~ visits; a landfill ~; appear/post on the ~; close/block/ban/develop/design/ control/address/administer/compromise a ~;  ~ admin/control/database/ development/license/name/ safety/server/testing; a spyware ~;

syn. place, location, spot

Spam (n) 

irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users for advertising purposes

send/receive/delete/block/report/ avoid ~; ~ filter/bot/buster/victim; spammer (n): annoying/irritating/ advertising ~; spamming (n): ~ of mailboxes/accounts; spamster (n);

syn. junk mail

Status (n)

relative social or professional position; the current condition a device or a user is in

~ of the person/bill, ~ bar/error/ control/monitoring/indicator/message/report; update/post/ delete/change/announce/

maintain/preserve/restore the ~; availability/(in)active/current ~; statutory (adj): ~ order/instrument;

syn. state, position

Cf. status quo

Stream (n)

a long, narrow strip of material used as a decoration or symbol; a continuous flow of data or instructions, typically one having a constant or predictable rate

TV/radio/video/information/ communication/file/input/output/ manager/mode/flow ~; ~ of data; instruction/media ~; stream (v); streamed (adj): ~ content/students; streamer (n): a plastic/party/multi-coloured ~ ; decorate/adorn with ~s; digital recording ~; streaming (adj): TV/video ~, audio ~;

syn. poster, slogan, flood

Trace (v)

follow or mark the course or position of sth; find or discover sth by investigation

~ a(n) signal/person/activity/actions; ~ sth back; trace (n): electrical/path/program/return/ reverse/signal ~; ~ analysis/ filter/interval/leakage/method/ scheduling; traceable (adj): barely ~; traceability (n); traced (adj): ~ profile; traceless (adj): ~ matrix/operator; tracer (n): ~ activity;

syn. track

Thread (n)

a long, thin strand of fibers used in sewing or weaving; a topic or subtopic within an electronic discussion group or forum; a programming structure or process linking a number of separate elements concurrently executed in multithreading

execution/discussion/main/single ~, ~ group/ID/ package/time/detector(ion)/

failure/formation; start/close/ continue/limit a ~;

thread (v): ~ a needle;

threaded (adj): ~ file;

threading (n): multi ~, ~ facility/tool

Virtual (adj)

not physically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so; an online computer-simulated space

~ world/reality/function/address/ business/call/network/channel/ community/computer/\

connection/database/device/directory/disk/library/meeting/memory/server/storage; virtualization (n): ~ engine/ implementation/management/ platform/software/technique/

technology; virtualize (v); virtually (adv): ~ impossible; virtuality (n);

syn. cyber

ant. real, actual

Web (n)

World Wide Web

a widely used information system on the Internet enabling the user to search for information by moving from one document to another

conferencing/casting/publishing/ browsing/programming; ~ page/address/application/ browser/designer/document/host/ interface/infrastructure/server/space/cast; ~-based administration/ email/solution;

syn. the Internet, global network

Cf. webinar, web-master, webcam, webisode, webzine

Wiki (n)

(from the Hawaiian “wiki wiki” which means “super fast”) a website or database developed collaboratively by a community of users, allowing any user to add and edit content

~pedia/books; media ~; ~leaks

Cf. encyclopedia

1. Oxford Dictionary of English, 3rd Edition. - Oxford University Press Inc., 2010

2. Англо-русский словарь по вычислительной технике и программированию. - 8-е изд., исп. и доп. – ABBYY. - Масловский Е.К., 2008.

3. Англо-русский толковый словарь по вычислительной технике, Интернету и программированию - 8-е изд., исп. и доп. – Э. М. Пройдаков, Л. А. Теплицкий, 2011.

4. Англо-русский словарь по телекоммуникациям. - «РУССО». - Александров А.В., 2004.

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. block

2. community

3. emoticon

4. forum

5. link

6. monitor

7. WWW

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. virtual

2. block

3. log in

4. snail mail

5. implicit

6. external

7. anonymous

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

accountably

link

mail

monitored

navigable

stream

trace

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

cyber

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

a blog

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

contents

Adjective/Noun

Target vocabulary unit

feed

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

cookies

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

e-

Target vocabulary unit

Adjective/Noun

password

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. anonymity

A. a small identifier file placed on a user’s computer by a Web site, which logs information about the user and their previous/current visits for the use of the site next time the user makes contact

2. avatar

B. a location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more web pages

3. clickbait

C. the state of being purposely unknown, concealing one’s identity

4. CTR

D. a text file containing a list of questions and answers relating to a particular subject

5. cookie

E. a movable icon representing a person in cyberspace or virtual reality graphics

6. FAQ

F. a common metric for reporting on the number of people who viewed a message or piece of content and clicked on the ad or link

7. meme

G. an image with text, video or link describing a thought, idea, joke, or concept to be shared online

8. site

H. web content with a misleading or sensationalist headline that entices readers to click through to the full story, usually with the goal of generating page views and advertising revenue

Activity 6. Insert prepositions

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. a cookie – spying

A. general and specific

2. trace –track

B. cause and effect

3. mail – postal mail

C. contrast

4. virtual – real

D. equivalence

5. a post – a site

E. part and whole

6. cookie - tracking

F. method and purpose

7. www – site

Activity 8. Decode Noam Chomsky’s saying about the Internet and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/code/BuildCryptogram.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

emoticon – meme

blog – site

Wikipedia - encyclopedia

log- blog

www – the Internet – cyberspace

avatar – icon

Activity 10. Say what the following is used for:

1. bookmark

2. FAQ

3. e-mail

4. password

5. status

6. thread

7. account

Activity 11. Outline the major advantages and/or disadvantages of:

Concept

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. cookie

2. geotagging

3. navigator

4. spam

5. avatar

6. crowdfunding

7. Wikipedia

Activity 12. Name at least 3 reasons why people should/shouldn’t have an anonymous avatar.

Activity 13. Say which accounts you have got on the Internet. What is the purpose of each account? How often do you use it?

Activity 14. Add to Wikipedia a page describing national clothes, a national musical instrument or the national cuisine (min. 500 words). Report on your contribution, demonstrate the results.

Activity 15. Do a mini research and prepare a short report about famous blogs/bloggers.

TEST

1

Mark the odd word: a) block b) permit c) give access d) allow

2

Alexandria is _________ by a network of railway and telegraph lines to the other towns of Egypt. a) linked b) linking c) linkage d) links

3

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “virtual – real”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) contrast

4

All of these are synonymous to the word “link” EXCEPT FOR:

a) tie b) connection c) cross-reference d) thread

5

E-mail and spam differ mostly by their ___.

a) size b) time of delivery c) purpose d) medium of delivery

6

A location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more web pages is known as a ___. a) blog b) cookie c) site d) link

7

What is the logical relationship between “a blog” and “an online journal”:

a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole d) equivalence

8

What is the logical relationship between “mail” and “postal mail”:

a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole d) equivalence

9

A blog and a forum differ mostly by their:

a) purpose b) number of authors c) location d) topic

10

Everybody can contribute ___ Wikipedia.

a) with b) in c) to d) for

11

A movable icon representing a person in cyberspace is known as a (n) ___.

a) avatar b) meme c) emoticon d) smiley

12

Computers account ____ 5% of the country's commercial electricity consumption.

a) with b) in c) for d) on

13

Mark the odd word:

a) account b) accountability c) accountant d) accountable

14

_________ TV is gaining more and more popularity.

a) stream b) streaming c) streamer d) streamed

15

Which of the following concepts denotes physical connection:

a) www b) landline c) the Internet d) cyberspace

16

Maintaining a site with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material is called ____. a) browsing b) blogging c) chatting d) feeding

17

The programmer successfully ____ some of software bugs.

a) traceless b) traced c) tracing d) trace

18

All of these deal with “data rate” EXCEPT FOR:

a) bandwidth b) clickbaiting c) throughput d) data transfer capacity

19

All of these collocate with the noun “crowdfunding” EXCEPT FOR:

a) succeed in b) allocate c) raise money through d) try

20

All of these collocate with the noun “password” EXCEPT FOR:

a) ageing b) stalking c) generation d) authentication


Module 7. CYBER CRIME

Term

Definition

Usage

Bootlegger (n)

a person engaged in illegal copying of software; an illegally copied software

bootlegging (n); bootlegged (adj);

syn. pirate, piracy

Breach (n)

an act of breaking or failing to observe a law, agreement, or code of conduct; disclosure of sensitive information to an unauthorized outsider

a ~ of law/contract/policy/code of conduct; do sth in ~ of sth;

syn. violation, infringement

Combat (v)

fight against sth; oppose sth vigorously

~ piracy/computer crime;

syn. fight sth, struggle with sth

Commit (v)

do; perform; dedicate oneself to sth

~ a(n) crime/murder/error/

suicide; ~ oneself to sth; ~ sth to memory/ prison; committed (adj): ~ to a cause/principles/idea/doing sth; a ~ employee/worker; commitment (n): show/demonstrate/make no ~;

Comply (v)

meet specified standards; act in accordance with a wish or command

~ with the rules/regulations/law/ standards; (non-)compliance (n); (non-)compliant (adj);

syn. conform to/with, abide by

Copyright (n)

the exclusive right given by law to an author to print, publish, and sell copies of his/her original work

secure/protect/ infringe on/ violate the ~; ~ law/holder; copyrighted (adj),

copyrighter (n);

copywriting (n)

ant. copyleft

Crack (v)

break or cause to break sth open or apart; find a solution to sth; decipher or interpret sth; break a security system illegally

~ a joke/code/message; a tough nut to ~, ~ down on criminals; crack (n): a ~ dealer/seller; crack (n): a tiny/narrow ~, cracking (n), cracker (n): a black-hat ~;

syn. break, decipher, hack

Crime (n)

illegal activity punishable by law

commit/prevent/report/fight (a) ~; punish sb for a ~; ~ rate/incidence; a victim of ~; petty/serious/violent/ organized ~; criminal (adj), criminally (adv), criminality (n), incriminate (v),

incrimination (n);

syn. felony, wrongdoing

Cyberbullying (n)

repeatedly harming or harassing other people online in a deliberate manner

be subject to~; fall/become a victim of ~;

syn. cyberstalking, trolling

Cybercide (n)

the deletion of an individual's entire online presences (the removal of all social media profiles, shared photos, blog posts, directory entries and so on)

be prone to/commit ~; an act of ~;

Cf. suicide, genocide, ecocide

Cyberslacking (n)

using company computer for personal purposes during working hours (playing games, shopping online or using social networking sites)

indulge in/engage in/combat ~; cyberslacker (n);

syn. cyberloafer, cyberloafing

Cybersquatting

(n)

purchasing a domain name that contains a well-known trademark or commercial name to sell it to the rightful owner for profit

engage in/be (get) involved in

/combat/eliminate ~

Data diddling (n)

modifying data for fun and profit, e.g. modifying grades, changing credit ratings, fixing salaries, or circumventing book-keeping and audit regulations

engage in/be (get) caught ~; data diddler (n)

Disseminate (n)

scatter or spread widely, promulgate extensively; broadcast; disperse

~ information/viruses/knowledge/ ideas/news; dissemination (n);

syn. spread, propagate, promulgate

Filter (v)

remove undesirable data by sifting

~ a list of customers/incoming e-mail/traffic;

syn. sift away

Flooding (n)

an overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits; providing more input than the entity can process properly

engage in/suspect/combat/protect against ~; flood (v), flooded (adj), flooding (n);

Cf. mailbombing, packet monkey

Fraud (n)

manipulation of data for criminal purposes, e.g. changing banking records to illegally transfer money to an account

a ~ scheme; control/commit/suspect/ combat/ protect against ~; in case of ~; fraudulence (n), fraudulent (adj), fraudulently (adv), fraudster (n)

syn. cheating, swindling

Hacker (n)

someone who secretly

uses or changes the

information in other

people's computer

systems

speed/teleport/ethical ~;

hack (v), back-hack (v);

syn. cracker

Identity theft (n)

creating a false identity using sb else’s identifying information to make new credit cards or take loans

commit an ~; protect from ~;

accuse sb of ~

Intruder (n)

the one who puts oneself deliberately into a place or situation where one is unwelcome or uninvited

network/computer/impudent ~; attack/alert an ~; intrude (v), (un)intrusive (adj), intrusion (n);

syn. invader, trespasser

Jacking (n)

taking sth in a manner forbidden by law, rules, or custom

click/hi/page-~;

engage in/be (get) involved in/suspect/combat/protect against ~; create a click-~ site; jack in (v); jacker (n): hi/click/page-~;

syn. stealing

Cf. identity theft

Keylogging (n)

installing a program on a victim's machine that records every keystroke made by a user for stealing login and password details

suspect/engage in/combat/protect against/suffer from ~; keylogger (n)

Mousetrapping (n)

forcing an Internet user to stay on a particular website by triggering a mouse trap

engage in/suspect/combat/protect against ~

Packet monkey (n)

sb who intentionally floods a network server or router with data packets in order to make it unreachable by others

Cf. flooding

Phracking (n)

a combination of phreaking with computer hacking

engage in/suspect/combat/protect against ~; phracker (n)

Phreaking (n)

hacking telephone systems, usually for the purpose of making free phone calls

engage in/suspect of /combat/protect against ~; freaker (n)

Piggybacking (n)

gaining unauthorized access to a computer system via another user's legitimate connection

engage in/be (get) involved in/be caught ~; a piggyback

Piracy (n)

the act of illegally copying software, music, or movies that are copyright-protected

computer/software ~; act of ~;

engage in/suspect/combat/commit/ protect against ~; anti-piracy (n): ~ law/measures; pirate (n), pirated (adj);

syn. bootlegging

Pharming (n)

misdirecting traffic from one website to a website controlled by a criminal hacker by altering the domain name system or configuration files on a victim’s computer

engage in/be (get) involved in/ suspect/combat/commit/protect against ~; pharmer (n)

Phishing (n)

sending e-mails or creating web pages that are designed to collect confidential information for penetration, financial fraud or identity theft

engage in/be involved in/be caught ~; phisher (n)

Repudiation (n)

rejection of a proposal or idea; refusal to fulfill or discharge an agreement,

obligation, or debt

~ of a law/contract/policy/idea/ principle; (n); repudiate (v);

syn. reject, renounce

ant. non-repudiation

/slicing (n)

stealing tiny amounts of money from each transaction

engage in/be (get) involved in/be (get) caught (in) ~

Scavenging (n)

looking through discarded listings, tapes, or other information storage media for useful information such as access codes, passwords, or sensitive data

engage in/be (get) involved in/be (get) caught ~;

syn. dumpster diving

Spoofing (n)

deceiving a system into thinking you are someone you really are not to bypass security measures

IP ~; engage in/be (get) involved in/be (get) caught ~; spoofer (n)

Steal (v)

take sb’s property without permission or legal right and without intending to return it

~ sth from sb; stolen (adj), stealth (n), stealthy (adj), stealthily (adv);

syn. theft (n)

Cf. thief

Trojan Horse (n)

an innocent-looking program that has undocumented harmful functions

download/detect/neutralize a ~;

Cf. Easter egg, time bomb, zombie

Trolling (n)

an anti-social act of

causing an interpersonal

conflict and controversy

online, purposely sowing

hatred, bigotry, racism, etc.

go ~; engage in/prevent/tackle/stop (an act of)/suffer from/reduce the risk of ~; troll (v);

syn. cyberbullying

Virus (n)

a computer program designed to replicate and spread itself from one machine to another by human action

download/detect/neutralize/spread/disseminate a ~;

Cf. bot, zombie

Wiretapping (n)

the interception of electronic communications in order to access information

engage in/detect/be (get) caught/protect against/from ~

Worm (n)

a program which spreads through a computer system or network by replicating itself without human action(like a virus) but without integrating itself into its executable code

install/download/detect/neutralize/ spread/disseminate a ~

1. Kabay M. E., Glossary of computer crime terms. [Online]. Available: http://www.mekabay.com/overviews/glossary.pdf [Accessed: 13 Oct. 2015]

2. Ward M., Hi-tech crime: A glossary. BBC news. [Online]. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk/5400052.stm [Accessed: Oct. 14, 2015]

3. The Dictionary. Netlingo. [Online]. Available: http://www.netlingo.com [Accessed: 15 Oct. 2015]

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. bootlegger

2. combat

3. committed to sth

4. breach

5. stealth

6. cyberslacking

7. filter

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. compliant

2. repudiation

3. violation

4.conformity

5. copyright

6. piracy

7. black-hat cracker

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

commit

intruder

criminal

steal

fraudulently

flood

(non-) compliant

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

fraud

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

a worm/virus

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

commit a(n)

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

spoofing

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

comply with a

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. stealing, jacking

A. modifying data for fun and profit

2. keylogging

B. using company resources for personal reasons during working hours

3. mousetrapping

C. taking sth in a manner forbidden by law, rules, or custom

4. phreaking

D. forcing an Internet user to stay on a particular website

5. data diddling

E. hacking telephone systems, usually for the purpose of making free phone calls

6. pharming

F. recording every keystroke that a user makes for stealing login and password details

7.cyberslacking

G. misdirecting traffic from one Website to a Website controlled by a criminal hacker

8. spoofing

H. deceiving a system into thinking you are someone you really are not

Activity 6. Insert prepositions

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. bootlegging – piracy

A. general and specific

2. phracking – cracking

B. cause and effect

3. spoofing – identity theft

C. contrast

4. stealing – salami slicing

D. method and purpose

5. worm – virus

E. part and whole

6. cyberslacking – loss of productivity

F. equivalence

7. firewall – malware protection

Activity 8. Decode a Jewish proverb about crime and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/cryptogramSetupForm.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

stealing vs jacking

phracking vs phreaking

hijacking - page-jacking - click-jacking

keylogging – mouse-trapping

malware – grayware

fraud – theft

hacker – cracker

Activity 10. Name at least 2 kinds of crime that involve:

1. violation of social norms

2. telephone calls

3. copyright violations

4. misdirecting or impeding traffic

5. stealing confidential data

6. identity theft

Activity 11. Arrange the computer crimes in the ascending order of the difficulty of committing them.

Activity 12. What kind of crime you might be a victim to if:

1. Your telephone/Internet bills have risen significantly.

2. Your account information has changed.

3. You receive threats and insults on the net.

4. The money in your bank account has disappeared.

5. You receive a lot of unwanted e-mails.

6. Your copyright is violated.

7. You can’t leave an Internet page.

Activity 13. Describe an instance of your suffering from an Internet crime.

Activity 14. What could you do not to fall prey to Internet criminals (name at least 3 measures).

Activity 15. Do a mini-research and add to the above list more recent types of computer crime.

TEST

1

Mark the odd word: a) oppose b) combat c) fight d) struggle

2

All of these may be committed EXCEPT FOR:

a) crime b) a mistake c) a murder d) suicide

3

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “breach - compliance ”: a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) contrast

4

A hacker and a cracker differ mostly in the ___ of their activity.

a) method b) purpose c) nature d) location

5

Which of these is synonymous to the word “cyberbullying”:

a) cyberslacking b) cyberstalking c) cybersquatting d) cyberloafing

6

Modifying data for fun and profit is known as ___.

a) phishing b) spoofing c) data diddling d) phreaking

7

One can filter any of these EXCEPT FOR:

a) fraud b) a list of customers c) incoming e-mail d) traffic

8

What is the logical relationship between “malware” and “a virus”:

a) general – specific b) method – purpose c) part – whole d) equivalence

9

Names of all crimes that consist in taking sth in a manner forbidden by law, rules, or custom contain the root ___. a) cide b) jack c) tap d) cyber

10

Choose the correct preposition: Anyone subject ___ cybercrime should be protected by law. a) of b) in c) to d) with

11

The words “trolling”, “cyberbullying”, “cyberstalking” relate to:

a) ill-treatment of people online

b) loss of confidential information

c) stealing sb’s property

d) deceiving people

12

The concepts of “keylogging”, “mousetrapping”, “pharming” relate to all of these EXCEPT FOR:

a) manipulation of people

b) loss of confidential information

c) blackmailing

d) deceiving people

13

The words “hijacking”, “pagejacking”, “clickjacking” relate to:

a) loss of confidential information

b) illegal takeover

c) stealing sb’s property

d) deceiving people

14

The words “piracy”, “bootlegging”, “copyright” relate to:

a) ill-treatment of people online

b) loss of confidential information

c) stealing sb’s intellectual property

d) deceiving people

15

All of these are synonymous to the word “disseminate ” EXCEPT FOR:

a) promote b) spread c) propagate d) promulgate

16

Purchasing a domain name that contains a well-known trademark or commercial name to sell it to the rightful owner for a big profit is known as ___.

a) cyberslacking b) cybersquatting c) cybercide d) cyberbullying

17

He is a convicted credit-card ___.

a) fraudster b) fraud c) fraudulent d) fraudulence

18

All of these collocate with the noun “worm” EXCEPT FOR:

a) install b) commit c) download d) detect

19

The difference between “copyright” and “copyleft” concerns mostly

the authors’ ___ (their) work. a) income from b) manner of c) method of

d) interest in

20

A blackhat and a whitehat differ mostly in the ___.

a) color b) size c) shape d) purpose


Module 8. CYBER SECURITY

Term

Definition

Usage

Attack (n)

an attempt to gain unauthorized access to system services, resources, or information, or to compromise system integrity

a(n) violent/aggressive/active/

passive/ inside/outside/spoofing ~; come under ~; be open to/ launch an ~;

syn. penetration, intrusion

Authenticate (v)

prove or show sth to be true, genuine, or valid; confirm the correctness of the claimed identity

~ a document/identity;

authentication (n): certificate-based/biometric ~;

authenticity (n);

syn. verify, validate, confirm

Cf. authorize

Authorize (v)

grant a right or a permission to a system entity to access a system resource

~ sb to do sth; be ~ed to do sth;

authorization (n): obtain/sign/present ~; authorized (adj): an ~ payment/dealer; authority (n): have/exercise ~ over sth/sb; delegate ~ to sb;

syn. entitle

Cf. authenticate

Back door (adj)

a feature or a defect of a computer system that allows secret unauthorized access to data

leave/activate a ~ to a computer; open a ~ to hackers;

syn. trap door

Certificate (n)

an official document recognizing sb as possessing certain qualifications or meeting certain standards

issue/renew/revoke/ grant/get/obtain a ~; ~ renewal/revocation; certify (v); certified (adj): a ~ CISCO programmer/accountant/ instructor; certification (n): ~ authority/procedure

syn. accredit, qualify

Cipher (n)

sth written in a code; a cryptographic algorithm

~ text/mode/key; write sth in ~;

(de)cipher (v), (de)ciphered (adj): a ~ message

syn. code, encrypt

Classified (adj)

sth or sb arranged in categories according 

to shared qualities or characteristics; sth categorized as officially secret, access to which requires authorization

a ~ document/information/ advertisement; be ~ according to into some categories;

classify (v): ~ sb/sth into … according to…; classification (n): ~ level/type/category;

syn. categorize

ant. declassified, unclassified

Code (n)

a system of symbols used to represent information in the form other than the original one

write/crack a ~; ~ string/generator/ inspection/length/point; source/malicious/machine/ASCII ~;

decode (v), encode (v);

syn. cipher, cryptogram

Compromise (v)

reach an agreement or settlement of a dispute by each side making concessions; cause to become vulnerable or function less effectively

~ a system/data/security/one’s principles; ~ on sth; compromise (n): reach a ~; (un)compromised (adj);

syn. undermine, weaken, concession

Confidential (adj)

information to be disclosed only to those authorized to view it

~ information/service/details/ performance check; keep sth ~; on a ~ basis; divulge ~ information; confidentiality (n): ~ agreement, breach of ~, total ~, under the terms of ~, guarantee/request ~; confidentially (adv);

syn. private, personal, secret, sensitive, classified

ant. open, public

Corruption (n)

dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery; degradation of a computer database or program by alteration or the introduction of errors

expose/root out ~; allegation of ~; prevent accidental data ~; lead to/cause data ~; rotten with ~;

corrupt/ed (adj);

ant. integrity

Cf. bribery

Dedicated (adj)

devoted to a task or purpose; exclusively allocated to or intended for a particular purpose; a mode of IS operation, wherein all users are authorized to access all data handled by the system

be ~ to a career/cause/team;

a ~ channel/security mode/link/ terminal/web page/graphics/card/ employee/LAN /line; dedicate (v): ~ oneself to sth/sb; ~ sth to sb; dedication (n);

syn: committed, exclusive, allocated

Deny (v)

refuse to give sth requested or desired to sb; refuse to admit the truth or existence of sth

~ access/the existence of sth/evidence/a law/a privilege/a claim; ~ sb the right to sth; ~ oneself the pleasure of sth/doing sth; ~ that…; denial (n): ~ of service/access;

(un)deniable (adj);

syn: reject, decline

Encrypt (v)

convert (information or data) into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access

~ information/data/a password/a message; cryptography (n), (un)encrypted (adj);encryption (n): ~ standards/code;

syn. code, cypher

ant. decrypt, decode

Expire (v)

(of a document, authorization, or agreement) reach the end of the validity period

license/contract/term/authorization ~s on/ at …; expiry (n): ~ date; upon/before/after ~; best before ~;

expiration (n), expired (adj)

Expose (v)

make sth visible by uncovering it; release sensitive data to an unauthorized entity (as a result of theft, wiretapping, etc.), cause someone to be vulnerable or at risk

~ sb to danger/risk/treatment/injury; ~ the nature/flaw/defect of sth; exposed (adj): ~ to culture/best practices; ~ and vulnerable; exposure (n): deliberate/unintentional ~;

syn. endanger, imperil, jeopardize sb/sth;

familiarize/acquaint sb with sth

Detect (v)

discover or identify the presence or existence of sth

~ (a/n) intrusion/virus/attempt/cancer /crime/changes/trend;

detector (n): fire ~; detective (n);

syn. become aware/conscious of, perceive

Digital (adj)

relating to, using, or storing data or information in the form of signals expressed as series of the digits 0 and 1

~ certificate/signal/age/map/assistant/ TV/generation/technology/revolution/ recording/cassette/copier/image; digitize (v); digit (n);

syn. computerized

ant. analogue

Disrupt (v)

interrupt or prevent the correct operation of system services and functions

~ the workflow/operations/activities/ a(n) application/mechanism/process/ system/production/plans; disruption (n), disruptive (adj);

syn. discontinue, interfere

Fail (v)

be unsuccessful in achieving one’s goal; cease to work properly; break down

~ to qualify/to meet the standards/to do sth; ~ in one’s attempt to do sth /an exam; a ~-safe mode; a ~ grade; ~;

failure (n): ~ control; control ~; be doomed to ~;

syn. breakdown, malfunction, go wrong;

ant. succeed

Filter (n)

a piece of software that processes data before passing it to another application, for example by reformatting characters or removing unwanted types of material

~ out/through sth;

~ a system/a message/traffic/ information/calls; filter (n): water/oil/software/removable ~; install a ~; ~ capability

syn. sift, purify

Firewall (n)

either a hardware program or a feature intended to filter incoming and outbound traffic

install/construct/bypass a ~; monitor computers and networks through a ~; invest in a software ~; up-to-date/outdated/personal ~; voice ~;

syn: security, gateway

Identity (n)

the characteristics determining who or what a person or thing is

~ card; personal/mistaken/group/corporate/ racial/social/ethnic/national ~;

identify (v): ~ sb (oneself) with sth/sb; identifier (n); identification (n);

syn. selfhood

Integrity (n)

the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; the state of being undivided; internal consistency or lack of corruption in electronic data

a man of ~; data/database ~ check; check sth for ~; structural/moral/territorial ~; ensure/preserve ~; integral (adj), (dis)integrated (adj);

syn. soundness, wholeness, solidity

Intrude (v)

enter with a disruptive or adverse effect;

gain access to sensitive data without authorization by circumventing a system's security protection

~ on sb’s privacy/into sb’s private life;

intruder (n), intrusion (n): defend sth against ~;

syn. encroach, infringe on, invade, disrupt

Cf: trespassing, penetration, reverse engineering

Log in/on (v)

gain access to a session to use system resources usually by

providing a user name and password to an access control system

~ to one’s computer/account/network;

login (n): type the ~; a ~ command file;

log (n): keep a ~ of sth; a logbook (n);

ant. log off/out

Password (n)

a secret word or phrase used to gain admission to a place; a string of characters that allows access to a computer, interface, or system

type/enter/change/require/supply/ know/forget the ~; ~ protection; be protected by a ~; a(n) (in)valid ~

Penetrate (v)

go into or through sth especially with force or effort; gain unauthorized access to sensitive data by circumventing a system's protections

~ the market/into a system/sb’s words;

penetration(n): high/deep ~; ~ level; (im)penetrable (adj): ~ barrier/network;

syn. infiltrate, invade

Privacy (n)

the state of being free from public attention; the right of a person

to determine the degree to which s/he will share information about him/herself with others

loss/guarantee of ~; invade/protect ~;

~ concerns/issues/policy/setting;

for ~ reasons/considerations/ protection;

private (adj): a ~ network

syn: confidentiality

ant. publicity, public

Proprietary (adj)

sth owned by an individual or a company, which needs to be licensed from the owner before it can be used

~ information/brand/rights/interests/ name /OS/database/software/ system/features; proprietorship (n);

ant. open, public/generic (brand)

Rely (v)

depend on sb/sth with full trust or confidence

~ on/upon sb/sth;

(un)reliable (adj), (un)reliability (n);

syn. be confident of; depend on, trust

Risk (n)

exposure to danger, the possibility that something unpleasant or unwelcome will happen

~-averse/aversion; the ~ factor; pose a ~; run/take the ~ of; a security ~; a ~ to safety; ~taker;

risky (adj), riskiness (n);

syn. insecurity,

Safety (n)

the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury

cyber/public ~ ; assure/jeopardize sb’s ~; ~ barriers/precautions;

safe (adj): stay ~ on the Internet, be ~ for sb/from sth; safely (adv);

syn. security

ant. insecurity

Scan (v)

look quickly but not very thoroughly through sth;

convert a document or picture into digital form; check manually or automatically for viruses and malware

~ for/through/into the computer; ~ data/information/library/the contents/pages/headings; scan (n): a quick ~ of sth;

scanner (n): optical/ultrasound/color/ desktop ~; buy/test/run the ~

Secret (n)

not known or seen or not meant to be known or seen by others

guard/keep/divulge a ~; a(n) open/state/commercial/military ~; meet in ~; secretive (adj): be ~ about sth

syn. cryptic, confidential, classified

Secure (adj)

protected against attack or other criminal activity

~ connection/transaction; ~ against/from sth;

security (n) : ~ policy/update/ environment/mechanism/service/ protocol/level; social/data ~; ensure/ compromise/undermine ~;

ant. insecure, insecurity

Sensitive (adj)

quick to detect or respond to slight changes, signals, or influences; kept secret or with restrictions on disclosure to avoid endangering security

~ to criticism/other people’s feelings/about sth; ~ information/issue/test/equipment/area;

sense (n), (in)sensitivity (n);

ant. insensitive

Threat (n)

a person or thing likely to cause damage or danger, a potential for violation of security or inflicting harm

pose/constitute/cause/carry out/fulfill/face a ~; security/major/hidden ~; a ~ to public safety; under the ~ of sth; threaten (v), threatening (adj);

syn. jeopardy, menace

Valid (adj)

legally or officially acceptable or binding; in legal force

~ contract/license/password/visa; (in)validity (n), (in)validate (v), (in)validation (n);

syn. effective

ant. invalid, ineffective

Vulnerability (n)

a flaw or weakness in a system that could be exploited to violate the system's security policy

degree of ~; exploit/identify/fix a ~ on a system; in/vulnerable (adj): ~ group/position/to criticism; emotionally/feel ~;

ant. immune, immunity

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms:

1. authenticate

2. authorize

3. compromise

4. deny

5. endanger

6. disrupt

7. intrude

Activity 2. Give antonyms:

1. encrypt

2. code

3. admit

4. vulnerable

5. confidential

6. succeed

7. cipher

8. proprietary

Activity 3. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

confide

undeniably

validity

safe

detect

digital

penetration

Activity 4. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

a certificate

Verb

Target vocabulary unit

a firewall

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

confidential

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

code

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

dedicated

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

deny

Activity 5. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. back door

A. disclose confidential information

2. divulge

B. a feature or defect of a computer system that allows secret unauthorized access to data

3. deny

C. sth categorized as officially secret, access to which requires authorization

4. classified

D. internal consistency or lack of corruption in electronic data

5. integrity

E. refuse to admit the truth or existence of sth

6. threat

F. owned by an individual or a company, which needs to be licensed from the owner before it can be used

7. proprietary

G. a person or thing likely to cause damage or danger

Activity 6. Insert prepositions:

1. I have never come ___ such an aggressive attack before.

2. Medicines should not be used ___ expiry.

3. Travelling abroad one gets exposed ___ various cultures.

4. These efforts are doomed ___ failure.

5. The disc has not been checked ___ integrity.

6. I would hate to intrude ___ his privacy.

7. She didn’t post the information ___ privacy reasons.

8. You can surely rely ___ me.

9. Could you scan the document ___ the computer?

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Logical relationship

1. authorize-authenticate

A. general and specific

2. firewall – security

B. cause and effect

3. deny – admit

C. contrast

4. scan – digitize

D. method and purpose

5. character – password

E. part and whole

6. filter - firewall

F. equivalence

7. integrity – corruption

Activity 8. Decode Bruce Schneier’s saying about computer security and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/code/BuildCryptogram.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

1. disclosing – divulging information

2. certificate – license

3. confidential – classified information

4. password – login – pin code

5. data integrity – academic integrity

6. safety – security

Activity 10. Say what/who can be… and how:

1. secured

2. corrupted

3. certified

4. dedicated

5. in/validated

Activity 11. Say what the following is used/done for:

1. authentication

2. authorization

3. encryption

4. back door

5. invalidation

6. coding

7. fail-safe mode

Activity 12. Analyze the reliability of a) passwords; b) firewalls c) licenses.

Activity 13. Do a mini-research and enumerate the computer security measures a) on the part of the user b) on the part of a programmer. Evaluate their reliability.

Activity 14. Describe your personal computer vulnerabilities.

Activity 15. Write a story of mistaken identity.

TEST

1

All of these are synonymous to the word “authenticate” EXCEPT FOR:

a) verify b) authorize c) validate d) confirm

2

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “firewall – security”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) method and purpose

d) part and whole

3

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “deny – admit”:

a) general and specific b) contrast c) method and purpose d) part and whole

4

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “filter – firewall”:

a) general and specific b) cause and effect c) equivalence d) part and whole

5

What is the logical relationship between the concepts “character – password”:

a) general and specific b) contrast c) method and purpose d) part and whole

6

Which of these is a correct antonym to the adjective “penetrable”:

a) unpenetrable b) inpenetrable c) impenetrable d) non-penetrable

7

All of these mean “cause to become vulnerable or function less effectively” EXCEPT FOR: a) compromise b) secure c) penetrate

d) expose

8

Mark the odd word: a) compromise b) corrupt c) disrupt d) detect

9

Official recognition of sb as possessing certain qualifications or meeting certain standards is referred to as ___.

a) authentication b) certification c) authorization d) verification

10

Mark the odd word: a) cipher b) code c) encrypt d) decrypt

11

Which of these is antonymous to “confidential”:

a) sensitive b) public c) classified d) proprietary

12

All of these collocate with the adjective “dedicated” EXCEPT FOR:

a) network b) channel c) link d) line

13

Choose the correct preposition: While studying abroad one gets exposed ___ the risks of cross-cultural misunderstanding. a) for b) to c) at d) by

14

Hackers try to ___ firewalls. a) install b) construct c) bypass d) set up

15

All of these are synonymous to the verb “expose” EXCEPT FOR:

a) endanger b) imperil c) peril d) jeopardize

16

The project is doomed ___ failure. a) for b) to c) – d) from

17

One can deny all of these EXCEPT FOR:

a) sb’s right to sth b) access b) a service c) some evidence d) an invitation

18

When scanning images ___ the computer, you digitize them

a) on b) in c) into d) to

19

Information categorized as officially secret, access to which requires authorization, is referred to as ___. a) confidential b) classified c) sensitive d) encrypted

20

Try not to intrude ___ people’s privacy in social networks.

a) — b) on c) at d) into


Module 9. TRENDS IN IT

Term

Definition

Usage

Accelerate (v)

increase in rate, amount, or extent; begin to move more quickly

~ (a) process/development/tempo/ changes/reforms/growth;

accelerated (adj), acceleration (n); accelerometer (n);

syn. quicken

ant. decelerate

Ad hoc (adj)

created or done for a particular purpose as necessary

an ~ network/test/analysis/ approach/body/committee; resolve sth ~; do sth on an ~ basis; adhocracy (n)

Agile (adj)

able to move or think quickly and easily; characterized by flexibility and pragmatism, adjusting development to customer needs and goals

methods/methodology/

project management/software development

agility (n); aglet (agile applet);

syn. adaptive, flexible

ant. waterfall

Amplify (v)

increase the volume, amplitude of sth like a sound, an electrical signal; make sth more intense

~ (a/n) signal/music/effect/process/ discussion; amplifier (n); amplification (n);

syn. enhance, augment;

ant. reduce, weaken

AI (abbr)

Artificial Intelligence

a branch of computer science that aims to program computers for reasoning, problem solving, learning, planning, manipulating objects

theoretical(practical) aspects/area of ~; ~ language/research/ technology/program;

specialize in/study/develop ~;

(un)intelligent (adj), (un)intelligently (adv), intelligentsia (n)

Asynchronous (adj)

not existing or occurring at the same time; (of computing processes) that can start or stop independently of other processes, which maximizes computing resources by utilizing idle times

communication/media/computing; ~ with sth;

synchronize with (v), asynchrony,

a/synchronously (adv);

ant. synchronous

Beta test (n)

the second (pre-release) phase of software testing in which a sampling of the intended audience tries the product out and reports bugs back to the developers

launch/undergo/subject to/stand/pass a ~; be on the ~; beta-testing (n);

Cf. beta version

Best practices (n)

commercial or professional procedures and standards that are globally accepted or prescribed as being correct or most effective

ensure/get exposed to/identify/ use/share/promulgate/adopt/gain an insight into/implement/follow/ transfer ~; industry/current ~;

the latest and ~ of the profession;

the ~ of the 1990

Cf. Big Data, Machine Learning, IoT, e-gov, e-commerce

Biometric (adj)

using biometric traits (fingerprints, eye retina, etc.) to verify users’ claimed identities when accessing devices, networks, networked or Web applications

~ authentication/ verification/techniques/method/security device; biometrical (adj): approach/genetics/characteristics; biometrics (n), biometrician (n); bioinformatics (n)

syn. biometry

Breakthrough (n)

a sudden, dramatic, and important discovery or development

major/technological/conceptual/ exciting/important/dramatic ~; achieve/make a ~; a ~ in sth

Bricks and clicks (n)

business that existed pre-Internet which now also uses the e-commerce selling technology via the Internet

~ stores/practices;

syn. physical VS virtual

Cf. bricks and mortar

Channel integration (n)

the practice of creating consistent messaging and utility across different complementing customer channels such as radio, TV, printed media, Internet, direct mailing, call center operations, making sure that customers have the same experience, regardless of the channel they use

promote/enhance/contribute to ~; (dis)integrated (adj);

ant. disintegration

Cloud (n)

a public or semi-public space for delivering hosted data storage, encapsulation, translation and transportation services over the Internet

~ computing/storage/technology; private/public/hybrid ~ computing services

Cf. in-house (storage)

Cluster (n)

a group of similar things or people positioned or occurring closely together; a group of loosely coupled computers that work together closely

a ~ of houses/stars /fruit, data ~; cluster (v): ~ around (v), clustered (adj), clustering (n): use/apply application ~, ~ of DB; software ~; clusterize (v), clusterization;

syn. bunch, knot

Cobot (n)

a robot that has been designed to work in collaboration with a human, as a co-worker would

create/design/operate a ~;

cobotic (adj): a ~ device

Cutting-edge (adj)

related to technological devices, techniques or achievements that employ the most current and high-level IT developments

~ technology/equipment;

cutting edge (n): the ~ of science/technology, etc.;

become/gain a sharper/lose/form/give sb/lack/represent/be at/stay at the ~;

syn. state-of-the-art, leading edge

Innovate (v)

make changes in sth established, especially by introducing new methods, ideas, or products

failure/desire to ~; keep ~ing;

~ competitively; innovation (n): promote/support/introduce ~s; biotech/latest/breakthrough ~s; innovator (n), innovatory (adj)

Knowledge (n)

facts, information, and skills

acquired through experience

or education; the intellectual

assets of an enterprise, system

~ management/economy; ~ base

(n), ~based engineering/economy/ approach; knowledgeable (adj),

knowledgeability (n),acknowledge

(v), acknowledgement (n)

Life hacker (n)

any trick, shortcut, skill, or novelty method that increases productivity and efficiency, solves an everyday problem in an inspired, ingenious manner

create/invent/design/be a ~;

life-hacking (adj): a ~ device/ method

Modify (v)

make partial or minor changes to sth

~ a program,/structure/design;

modification (n), modified (adj), modifier (n);

syn. change, adjust, adapt

Multi- (prf)

related to more than one, many

~-purpose/functional/media/

mode/user; multiply (v),

multiple (adj), multiplicity (n), multitasking (n)

Nano (n)

denoting a factor of 10−9 (one billionth part of sth), sth sub-microscopical

~ technology/material/fiber/scale/ particle/tube/second/bot

Neural network

a computational model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks

theoretical (practical) aspects/area of ~; ~ research/technology/ program; specialize in/study/develop ~; artificial ~

Next-generation (adj)

related to the future, being in store

~ operational support system/
solutions/computer

Open source (n)

the original source code in software engineering which is made freely available to the public and may be redistributed and modified

software/protocol/project/

product/ initiative

Outsourcing (n)

using external sources to provide service and support operations

IT/partial/total ~; use/resort to ~; outsource (v): ~ services/

facilities;

ant. insourcing

3-D printing (n)

an additive manufacturing process that builds layers to create a three-dimensional solid object from a digital model

develop/introduce ~; the cost/ opportunity/introduction of ~;

3-D printer (n)

4-D printing (n)

an additive manufacturing that prints objects capable of transformation and, in some cases, of self-assembly

develop/practice/introduce ~;

the cost/opportunity/introduction of ~; 4-D printer (n)

-proof (adj)

never-failing, protected from

water/fool/bullet/sound/

earthquake~;

Cf. water-resistant

Quantum programming (n)

a would-be programming, in which calculations are based on the behavior of particles at the sub-atomic level, capable of executing far more millions of instructions per second (MIPS) than before because the data units can exist in more than one state at a time

develop/practice/introduce ~;

the cost/opportunity/introduction of ~;

ant. binary computer programming

Real-time (adj)

a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as sufficiently immediate, occurring in actual time

~ decisions/technology/system/ solutions/software/signal processing

ant. virtual time

R&D (abbr)

Research and Development

(related to) researching and developing new products or technologies

~ department/organization/ budget allocation

Recognition (n)

software ability to digitize real-life visual information

voice/speech/face/gesture/optical character ~;

recognize (v), (ir)recognizable (adj)

Remote (adj)

distant; in computing: about a device which can only be accessed via a network

~ from sth; ~ control/access/ terminal/ location/area/ administration tool/alarm sensor;

remoteness (n), remotely (adv)

syn. distant

ant. nearby, local

Robot (n)

a machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, especially one programmable by a computer

build/construct/design/create/

control a ~; interactive/industrial ~; ~ control;

robotic (adj): ~ industry/ movement/mechanism/

precision/system; robotics (n): law of ~; ~ technology; robotize (v)

Cf. cobot

Smart (adj)

having or showing a quick-witted intelligence; any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that is programmed to be capable of some independent action

look ~; a ~ device/phone/home/ city/Aleck; smartly (adv), smartness (n);

syn. intelligent

ant. dumb

Social media

(n, pl.)

a catch-all term for a variety of Internet applications that allow users to create content and interact with each other by sharing and commenting on links, photos, videos and posting public updates, etc.

use/support/develop/invent ~;

medium (n, sing): ~ of exchange/instruction; provide a ~ for sth; mediate (v), intermediate (adj),

intermediary (n)

syn. civic media

Cf. SMM (social media marketing)

Tele- (prf)

far off; to or at a distance

~vision/phone/transportation/ kinesis/commuting/communication/ marketing

syn. remote, distant

Tolerant (adj)

(of a plant, animal, or machine) able to endure specified conditions or treatment

failure/fault~; ~ of pollution/high temperature; fault~ data protection/technology;

toleration (n), (in)tolerance (n), (in)tolerantly (adv);

ant. intolerant

Viral (adj, n)

(of an image, video, piece of information, etc.) circulated rapidly and widely from one Internet user to another

a ~ advertising campaign/marketing; go ~; viral (n): the rise of ~s;

virally (adv)

1. Technology dictionary, Technopedia. Available: http://www.techopedia.com/definition [Accessed: 20 Oct. 2015]

2. Computer glossary, Techtarget dictionary and encyclopedia. [Online]. Available: http://bnc.bl.uk/saraWeb.php?qy=best+practices&mysubmit=Go [Accessed: 24 Oct. 2015]

3. Online tech dictionary for IT professionals, IT Business Edge. [Online]. Available: http://www.webopedia.com/ [Accessed: 22 Oct. 2015]

ACTIVITIES

Activity 1. Give synonyms and/or antonyms:

1. quantum programming

2. agile

3. accelerate

4. synchronous

5. integrated

6. real time

7. remote

8. tolerant

Activity 2. Word family. Fill in the missing words of the same root where possible:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

multiple

modify

recognition

in/tolerantly

amplify

intelligent

robot

Activity 3. Complete the tables with words that form strong partnerships with the target vocabulary units:

Noun

Target vocabulary unit

-proof

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

nano-

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

remote

Target vocabulary unit

Noun

tele-

Activity 4. Match the given terms with their definitions:

1. waterfall

A. a business management and corporate culture model based on the ability to adapt quickly to changing conditions

2. insourcing

B. the underlying set of facts, assumptions, and rules which a computer system has available to solve a problem

3. adhocracy

C. characterized by sequential stages and a fixed plan of work

4. knowledge base

D. separating the IS department from the enterprise, usually as a business unit measured by its own profit and loss

5. tolerant

E. circulated rapidly and widely from one Internet user to another

6. viral

F. able to endure specified conditions or treatment

7 7. agile

G. characterized by flexibility and pragmatism, adjusting development to customer needs and goals

Activity 5. Fill in the blanks with the words “-tolerant”, “-proof”, “multi-“, “tele-“”-free”

1. It will be a wrist-watch shaped device that permits instantaneous ___ portation to the zones where the keys are hidden.

2. ___ sensory devices are now trending.

3. I'm going to seal off the back of the car with a sheet of sound- ___ glass.

4. This set of computer equipment has a water- ___ box for a printer.

5. The device is not at all fault-___

6. They are very well designed and totally bug-___.

7. He had never favored ___ pathy as a means of communication.

8. The receiver is quite fool-___ and generally consists of a few basic components.

Activity 6. Insert prepositions:

1. These teacher-student interactions are asynchronous, ____ each other.

2. The invention of fiber-optic communication was a major breakthrough ___ the field of computing.

3. We should make the world more tolerant ___people with physical and intellectual disabilities 4. While studying in the US one gets exposed ___ the best practices in the computer industry.

5. The 750 series SSDs were ___ the cutting edge of storage technologies

6. Cost-conscious companies resort ___ outsourcing as a way to reduce overhead expenses.

7. 3D printers can create a three-dimensional solid object ___ a digital model

Activity 7. State the type of logical relations between the following concepts:

Concepts

Type of logical relations

1. cobot – robot

a. general and specific

2. cutting-edge – state-of-the-art

b. cause and effect

3. water-proof - water-resistant

c. contrast

4. smart – dumb

d. method and purpose

5. remote access – telecommuting

e. part and whole

6. breakthroughs – smarter devices

f. equivalence

7. agile – flexible

Activity 8. Decode Bill Gates’ saying about innovations and comment on it:

http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/code/BuildCryptogram.asp

Activity 9. Explain the difference between the following concepts using the Venn diagram below:

quantum programming- binary programming

bricks and clicks

outsourcing – insourcing

commuting – telecommuting

3D printing – 4D printing

cutting edge – bleeding edge

R & D (research and development)