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Part I

Unit 1

Ten characteristics successful people share

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the quiz below. Score one point for each ‘yes’ answer. When you have finished, count up the number of ‘yes’ answers you gave.

Are you an introvert or an extrovert?

Yes/No

2) You are just settling down in comfortable clothes to an evening with a book or the television when some friends pop in unexpectedly. Are you pleased to see them?

Yes/No

3) You are planning a party with friends. Would you suggest playing games?

Yes/No

4) You are at a dinner party. Your hostess serves up a dish that you think is horrible. Would you refuse to eat it?

Yes/No

5) You are spending an evening at your English teacher’s house. Suddenly, it is announced that everyone must sing, dance, or tell a story to entertain the others. Would you enjoy doing it?

Yes/No

6) Do you feel comfortable when you walk into a room full of people you don’t know?

Yes/No

7) You are in slow-moving traffic. Do you get frustrated and irritable?

Yes/No

8) You arrive just as the lift doors are closing. Would you walk up the stairs rather than wait for the lift?

Yes/No

9) Would you prefer an exciting job with few prospects and no pension to a safe job with good prospects and a pension?

Yes/No

10) Do you like wearing unusual clothes rather than fashionable clothes?

Yes/No

11) Do you usually make your mind up quickly rather than consider each decision thoroughly?

Yes/No

12) Someone is boasting to you about their many possessions. Do you try to impress them by talking about all the things you have?

Yes/No

Study the Score interpretation table below.

Score

Comment

8-12

You are definitely an extrovert.

4-8

You are neither totally introvert, nor totally extrovert. Your mood and attitude change according to different situations.

Less than 4

You are definitely an introvert.

Ex. 2. Work with your partner. Compare your results with those of the partner. Give arguments to support your opinion.

Do you both agree with them?

Do you think your own results really show your character?

While expressing your viewpoint, you can make use of some phrases given below in the Useful language box.

Useful language: Expressing an opinion

I think / I believe (that) …

It seems to me that …

In my opinion, / In my view, …

Do NOT say «According to me» or «According to my opinion».

When providing evidence, you may need to discuss the reasons for something. When you have more than one supporting reason, you can use linking expressions. Study the following Useful language boxes and use appropriate expressions to fulfill the task of this exercise.

Useful language: Expressing reasons

Because Because children spend so much time indoors, they ….

Children may have health problems because they ….

because of / Their schoolwork can suffer because of / as a result of ....

as a result of

so / such Some games are so realistic that children may .

Some games have such realistic effects that ….

Since Since we have no money, we can’t buy it.

As As he was not ready in time, we went without him.

Useful language: Linking expressions

In the first place, … One reason for this is … Another (reason) is …

In addition, … Furthermore, … Moreover, …

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Split into two groups. Those who have a score of 7 and above (group 1 students) make a list of advantages of being an extrovert. Those who have a score of 6 or under (group 2 students) make a list of advantages of being an introvert.

Ex. 2. Take it in turns to name advantages of being an extrovert or an introvert.

Your personal opinion is required. While expressing it, make use of a variety of phrases mentioned in the Useful language box above.

Ex. 3. Work with your partner. You are an extrovert and your partner is an introvert. Can you think of disadvantages of extroverts or introverts (no more than 2) to counterbalance the advantages listed above. If necessary, support your opinion with some examples.

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Read the title of the reading passage. What is the topic?

Ex. 2. Look through the first paragraph and find sentences that confirm or correct your guess.

Ex. 3. Skim the text (paragraphs A-J) and choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number in the spaces provided.

List of headings

Paragraphs

1. Become self-aware.

Paragraph A ….

2. Be a hard worker.

Paragraph B ….

3. Always remain enthusiastic.

Paragraph C ….

4. Have self-discipline.

Paragraph D ….

5. Be inquisitive.

Paragraph E ….

6. Be decisive.

Paragraph F ….

7. Be a good communicator.

Paragraph G ….

8. Be goal-oriented.

Paragraph H ….

9. Be persistent.

Paragraph I ….

10. Take calculated risks.

Paragraph J ….

Ten characteristics successful people share

Some people are born with a silver spoon in their mouth, but most of us have to reach success in the good old fashioned way, with hard work. But it takes more than just putting your head down and getting to work. The truly successful people each have certain undeniable traits they share in common. If you want to learn how to get out of the rat race and achieve all your goals, read these 10 characteristics of truly successful people.

A. Thomas Edison famously tried and failed at countless innovations he pushed through. He never gave up and ultimately came up with the light bulb. It was his persistent attitude that got him through it. He once said: "I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work." That's the definition of persistence. Whether you fail one time, two times or even a thousand times, do not give up. In business and in life you must be stubborn if you want to achieve your goals.

B. Keeping yourself focused on the task at hand is easier said than done. If you work at home it can be difficult to stay focused with all of the distractions around you. It's also difficult to keep your head in the game when the whole world is outside waiting for you.

But to be successful you have to hold yourself accountable because you know that you and only you determine your successes and failures in life. Success can be measured in many ways. To be successful financially, you must have self-discipline in your expenditures. Measuring your incoming and outbound money can be difficult, but the proper tools can help monitor oneself.

C. Successful people act fast and decisively. They do not waver in their decisions because they truly believe that what they do is right. Decisive people act quickly, and when it comes to innovations, half of the game is being the first one through the gate. Don't be afraid to make a bold business decision because while you're deciding, your competitors are running right past you.

D. Do you want to know why successful people attain their goals? It's because they make them. Do you have a goal for today? I don't think so. Remember that success is not going to fall right on your lap, you have to go out and grab it. Every day is a new chance to accomplish some goals. Successful people make both short-term and long-term goals. By keeping your goals in sight you can take steps to make them all a reality. Every day you should have at least one attainable goal you can accomplish by the end of the day. If you keep building on that every day pretty soon you will reach your larger goal of being successful. Use a smartphone app like Wunderlist to create tasks, assign deadlines so you can track your progress and reach your goals.

E. Enthusiasm comes from passion. If you are passionate about what you do then you'll never work a day in your life. So become enthusiastic about your next project or idea. When you encounter failures, learn from them and don't let them get you down. These are merely speed bumps on the road to success. Embrace change, rise to the challenge and good things will come your way.

F. Know who you are, what your abilities are and what your limitations are. This will help you focus on the areas that need improvement while playing up your strong points. If communication isn't your strong point, then surround yourself with people that can help you fill in the gaps in your knowledge to build a well-rounded team. Don't be so hard-headed and think you can do it all. Even one of the most successful entrepreneurs, Steve Jobs, needed Steve Wozniak to build and program the first Apple computer. Jobs had the vision and the drive, Woz had the technical know-how.

G. As the saying goes, no risk no reward. Don't hesitate and be afraid of what others will think and certainly don't be afraid of failure. Do you think Steve Jobs knew the iPod, iPhone and iPad would be a hit? Nope. Apple took a risk and you should too. With said, taking a blind risk at certain failure isn't what I'm saying to do here cither. Do your due diligence and then take the plunge.

H. Learning doesn't stop when you graduate from college. For successful people, learning is a lifetime endeavor and they are inquisitive and always willing to find a lesson in every adventure. Most successful people are not geniuses, they are people with a passion for learning and trying new things.

I. If you want to be a leader, you'll need to know how to communicate effectively with others. You can get books or take courses to help you improve your skills if they are lacking. Effective communication is essential for building better relationships with your team and improves your networking capabilities as well.

J. You can never underestimate the value of hard work. Every successful person has to work hard. They have to be willing to put in the hours required to get the job done. Successful people know that sacrifices will have to be made along the way and they accept it.

Ex. 4. Read paragraphs A-E of the text and answer questions given below. Choose no more than 3-5 words from the passage for each answer.

a) What helped Edison to reach his goal?

b) If you want to be successful financially, what must you do?

c) How do decisive people act?

d) Why do successful people attain their goals?

e) Where does enthusiasm originate?

Ex. 5. Look at the following list of pieces of advice on how to become successful. Match each piece of advice with a suitable paragraph (F-J).

a) Hard work leads to success.

b) If you are aware of your weak points, you can focus on the areas that need improvement.

c) If you want to be rewarded, take a risk.

d) If you are interested in better relationships with your team, learn to socialize.

e) If you want to succeed, remember that learning is a lifetime endeavor.

Ex. 6. Complete the summary using the words from the box given below.

Most people achieve their … working hard. But … is not the only characteristic of truly successful people. There are some traits of character that successful people … . If you want to succeed, you must be … and persistent, decisive and inquisitive. Self-discipline and … are also of great importance. Why do successful people attain their goals, it’s because they make them. Everyday you should have a goal to accomplish. Sometimes it is worth … a risk. Don’t be afraid of … . If you encounter them, don’t let them … you down. Be passionate about what you do and remember if you want to be a leader, learn to … effectively with others.

share

diligence

goals

self-awareness

taking

failures

enthusiastic

get

communicate

Focus on Vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Complete the following table with the correct parts of speech. Most of the answers appear in the text.

Verb

Noun

Adjective

persistent

to succeed

count

to decide

to compete

real

improvable

communicator

Ex. 2. Choose words from the table to complete the sentences.

a) The … of a high temperature in the patient puzzled the doctor.

b) There is need for … in your handwriting.

c) Our firm offers you … prices.

d) He gave a … answer.

e) Young people sometimes complain of not being able … with their parents.

f) I … it a great honour to serve you.

g) Things that happen in … life are sometimes stranger than things that occur in fiction.

h) The plan was a great … .

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) The truly successful people each have certain undeniable traits they share in common.

b) He never gave up and ultimately came up with the light bulb.

c) If you work at home it can be difficult to stay focused with all of the distractions around you.

d) You and only you determine your successes and failures in life.

e) They do not waver in their decisions.

f) Do you want to know why successful people attain their goals?

g) They are inquisitive and always willing to find a lesson in every adventure.

h) Successful people make both short-term and long-term goals.

Ex. 4. Study the context and match each word in bold type in the sentences given above with the correct definition from the table below.

1) to hesitate;

2) undoubtedly true;

3) purpose, aim;

4) fond of, showing a fondness for;

5) in the end;

6) something annoying and unwelcome;

7) lack of success;

8) succeed in doing or getting.

5. Fill in the missing words in the definitions below. Choose appropriate words from the table.

big shot

slavedriver

brick

smart aleck

dab hand

swot

dark horse

whizz kid

a) A (n) … is a very important or influential person.

b) A (n) … is a person who annoys others by claiming to know everything and trying to sound clever.

c) A (n) … is a person with modern ideas who works with energy and enthusiasm and achieves great success in his or her job while still young.

d) A (n) … is a very nice, dependable person.

e) A (n) … is a person who has greater capabilities than he/she shows or than people are aware of.

f) A (n) … is someone who makes people work very hard.

g) A (n) … is someone who studies very hard especially when trying to get good examination results.

h) A (n) … is a person who is very good at something.

Word partners

Ex. 6. The text contains a number of phrasal verbs. Complete the sentences using appropriate postpositions that are a part of these phrasal verbs. Consult the text if necessary.

a) I wish I could get out … going to that wedding.

b) They managed to come up … a solution to the problem.

c) He got his pupils … an examination.

d) When it comes … helping his wife with the housework, John never grumbles.

e) Don’t let this cold weather get you … .

f) I can’t answer that puzzle, I give … .

g) Much of the butter eaten in England comes … New Zealand.

h) Customers are requested to fill … a form when they check in at a hotel.

Name these phrasal verbs and find their synonyms in the list of verbs given below.

- to avoid, to escape;

- to depress;

- to surrender, to yield;

- to find, to produce (an answer);

- to help somebody do something;

- to reach the state of affairs indicated or a particular state of affairs;

- have as a birthplace, place of origin;

- to add what is necessary to make complete.

Ex. 7. Work with your partner. Choose from the table below adjectives that can be used to describe:

impulsive

good-humoured

patient

polite

decisive

sociable

assertive

calm

dominating

mature

intelligent

sensitive

wise

goal-oriented

formal

daring

thoughtful

considerate

hard-working

enthusiastic

inquisitive

self-disciplined

Explain your choice and add some more words if you wish.

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Study the following topic card. How many discussion points are there?

Describe someone you know or admire.

You should say:

and explain

what you appreciate most in this person and why.

Take it in turns to describe a person you know. When you have finished speaking, your partner will ask you 1 or 2 questions.

Ex. 2. Prioritize the following according to how important these traits of character are for you.

You may require some phrases to express your personal opinion. Study the Useful language box given on page 5.

Your partner may wish to challenge your opinion. He may need expressions from the Useful language box below.

Useful language: Challenge a fact or claim

Ex. 3. Think about one or two personal goals you have for the future, e.g.

You should say what is special about these goals and explain your reasons for choosing them. Make a mindplan if necessary.

Unit 2

Do you have the personality traits to be a successful scientist?

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Read the following article.

A typical view of a scientist is that of a person in a white coat, conducting experiments. The truth is that scientists can be defined as people involved in the systematic and documented study of the phenomena that occur in nature but they are not limited to just physics, chemistry or biology. They can even indulge in studies related to the makeup of the earth and social scenarios where they study and try to understand the behaviour of a group of individuals of a particular species, sub-species or any other such classification. Thus, they can be classified into various categories based on the branch of science that they are involved in. Some of such categories are social scientists, astronomers, physicists, biologists, chemical engineers or chemists, agriculturists and earth scientists. There are many more branches of science which a person can become a specialist of. Some of the notable people from this field are people like Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.

Ex. 2. Work in pairs to answer the following questions in your own words.

a) What is a typical view of a scientist?

b) Does the personality of a scientist have a set definition? Why?

c) How would you describe a typical scientist?

Ex. 3. Find words in the article which mean the same as the following.

opinion

engaged

research

associated

fields

distinguished

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Work in pairs. What tense and/or particular verb form would you be likely to use in replying to questions beginning:

All your questions should be related to research. Complete each question in a suitable way and then ask and answer in pairs.

Ex. 2. Work with another student to discuss the following questions.

a) Are all scientists the same? Why?

b) Scientists require certain skills, e.g. practical skills, theoretical knowledge, a logical mind. Are all these skills absolutely essential to be a scientist?

c) Why is communication of great importance in science?

d) Do scientists have to be all-round people or are they allowed to have some weaknesses as well? Why?

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Read the title of the reading passage. What is the topic?

Ex. 2. Look through the first paragraph of the text. What two questions does the author ask? What answers to these questions would you give?

Ex. 3. Skim the text (paragraphs A-H) and choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number in the spaces provided.

List of headings

Paragraphs

1. Last but not least: communication

Paragraph A …

2. Keep it simple

Paragraph B

3. Important traits

Paragraph C

4. Creativity is essential

Paragraph D

5. Logic is the beginning of wisdom, not the end

Paragraph E

6. The making of a scientist

Paragraph F

7. Fascinated like a child

Paragraph J

8. Persistence

Paragraph H

Do you have the personality traits to be a successful scientist?

We're all familiar with the caricatures of scientists on TV and in movies. They always seem to be a little bit odd. There’s Sheldon from The Big Bang Theory, who is a scientific genius. There's Doc Brown from Back to the Future”, who is absent-minded and awkward. Hollywood loves to over-emphasize and dramatize personality traits of scientists. I think the purpose of this is to set these characters apart from the “Average Joe. In fact, scientists aren't like what we see in the movies. What are traits that scientists share? Besides being intelligent, skilled in their craft and interested in the work, what personal characteristics do scientists have that are essential to being able to do the work?

A. In my opinion, the most important personality traits that the best scientists possess are powerfully critical and analytical minds. Sometimes scientists are so critical that this causes problems within interpersonal relationships. I myself hardly ever believe anything unless there is evidence. I've been told that I tend to overanalyze day-to-day problems and this makes me seem rigid, impersonal. I often treat others' personal issues like analytical problems to solve. Maybe this is true when it comes to interpersonal relationships, but without a doubt, success in a scientific career requires a fundamental mindset that relies on fact, evidence and objectivity. Every step of every experiment or analysis requires critical evaluation to ensure it is significant, reproducible and impartial. The reason for being such a critical thinker is that answers to research questions are always discovered in this way. At its core, science is objective, impersonal, reproducible and verifiable.

B. Hand-in-hand with the ability to be a critical thinker is a natural tendency to see the world in parsimonious terms, i.e., when one has two competing theories that make exactly the same prediction, he chooses the simplest one. The answer to a question is the simplest one if it doesn't involve extraneous steps of unnecessarily complex theories. The natural world tends to operate in as energy-efficient means as possible therefore, solutions to scientific problems tend to be found in the simplest routes. Practically speaking, if you are conducting your research and designing an experimental plan that involves multiple needlessly complicated steps, it will lead you to failure. The best scientific researchers are those that look for parsimonious answers.

C. Relying on logical deduction is another fundamental personality trait I always observe in scientists. Without a doubt, answers to scientific questions are those that fit data and do not pose logical contradictions. They are not only parsimonious but also logical. Another way to say this is that explanation for the data must be coherent, rational, and it must take into account all previous theories in the field.

D. I have also noticed that the best scientists act like children in a candy store when they are immersed in their research. They have an almost innocent, naive love for their work. I think this speaks to a deep-down curiosity and amazement with the complexity, and beauty in the natural world, and a basic love for discovery.

E. Creativity is also a very important trait for the scientist. The common perception of scientists is that they lack imagination and are only interested in cold hard facts. While it is true that scientists look for facts as evidence, the very best scientists are actually quite creative. They are able to design experiments that others haven't, ask questions others haven't thought of before, and communicate their findings in interesting and imaginative ways.

F. Another essential personality trait shared by successful scientists is stubbornness. You may not take this seriously, but to me being stubborn means being dedicated to your work, being patient, and not giving up when research or an experiment goes wrong.

G. If you believe the caricatures of scientists, you think that they are bad communicators and incapable of social interactions. This couldn't be further from the truth, because the most successful scientists are actually excellent communicators. They can communicate as well as design and implement their research. The best scientists are able to relate complex research concepts into terms accessible to colleagues, specialists and non-specialists alike.

H. Of course, all of us working in research are different people and we have different strengths and weaknesses. Some of us are excellent critical thinkers, but are poor communicators. Some of us may be extremely passionate about the work, but are unable to navigate and persevere along the difficult road of research success and failure. There is no absolute requirement to possess the traits I've described, but I believe the best scientists are the ones that share most of these characteristics.

Ex. 4. Read paragraphs A-D of the text and answer questions given below. Choose no more than 3-5 words from the passage for each answer.

a) When is it difficult to consider a hypothesis correct?

b) What does success in a scientific career require?

c) Which of the two competing theories is better?

d) What plan usually leads to failure?

e) What must an answer to a scientific question be?

f) How do scientists usually behave?

Ex. 5. Scan paragraphs E-H and complete the sentences below with words or phrases from the text.

a) Creative scientists can design … .

b) Being stubborn means … .

c) Being excellent communicators the best scientists are able to relate … .

d) Communication skills are significant for … .

e) Researchers are different people as they … .

f) In my opinion, the best scientists share … .

Ex. 6. Choose no more than 4-7 words from the reading passage for each answer to complete the summary below.

Personality traits of scientists are usually over-emphasized and dramatized in the movies. The aim of this is to distinguish scientists … . But scientists aren’t like … . The best scientists possess … . Sometimes this can cause problems … There a son for being critical thinkers is in the way answers to … . In addition to being critical thinkers, scientists see … . Answers to scientists questions must … . Scientists are often compared to children as they … . The common perception of scientists is that … . Although it is true scientists are … . Moreover, they are … . They can communicate as well as … . Last but not least is their ability to be stubborn which means … . To sum up, it is necessary to point out that there is no absolute …

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Study the table where suffixes that are used to form nouns, verbs and adjectives are given.

A

B

C

Noun forming suffixes

Verb forming suffixes

Adjective forming suffixes

- hood

- ism

- ity

- ment

- ness

- ship

- tion/sion

- ist

- er/or

- y

- ate/iate

- en

- ify

- ise/ize

- ic(al)

- al

- ful

- ive

- less

- able/ible

- ous

- ent/ant

Complete the table below by adding either the adjective or the noun. Make use of the suffixes given above.

Noun

Adjective

science

personal

essence

power

analytical

success

objective

able

experiment

parsimony

Ex. 2. Choose appropriate suffixes from the table above to complete the words given in sentences a) - j).

a) One of the most import … trait for the scientist is creativ….

b) People usually think that scient lack imagination.

c) Scientists communicate their results in interesting and imaginat … ways.

d) Stubborn… is another essential personal … trait shared by scientists.

e) One can think that scientists are bad communicat .

f) Scientists can explain their ideas in a simple, access … way.

g) Science relies on objective, impersonal, reproduce … and verify … data.

h) Solutions to scientif … problems are found in the simplest ways.

i) It is need … to say that complicated steps lead to failure.

j) Curios … and amaze … with the complexity of the world of nature, love for discover … are other fundamental personality traits of scientists.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) There’s Sheldon from The Big Bang Theory who is a scientific genius.

b) Sometimes scientists are so critical that this causes problems within interpersonal relationships.

c) The answer to a question is the simplest one if it doesn't involve extraneous steps of unnecessarily complex theories.

d) Explanation for the data must be coherent, rational, and it must take into account all previous theories in the field.

e) Scientists have an almost innocent, naive love for their work.

f) Scientists are thought to lack imagination and are only interested in cold hard facts.

g) Be patient and don’t give up if your experiment goes wrong.

h) Sometimes scientists are not able to persevere along the difficult road of research success and failure.

Ex. 4. Study the context and match each word in bold type in the sentences given above to the correct definition from the table below.

Word partners

Ex. 5. Match each word below to a group of words that can be combined with it.

characteristics mind theory data answer scientist

Ex. 6. Complete the following sentences using word partners from exercise 5.

a) Being intelligent, skilled and interested in their work are … … of scientists.

b) The best scientists possess powerfully … …

c) If there are two … … making the same prediction, the simpler one is sure to be better.

d) His theory is based on … …

e) … to scientific questions must not only be the most … but also the most …

f) Though it is believed that … lack imagination, they are actually quite …

Ex. 7. Fill in the missing prepositions in these sentences.

a) She is skilled … her craft.

b) … my opinion, this is true.

c) Solutions … scientific problems are found in the simplest way.

d) People are familiar … the caricatures of scientists on TV and in movies.

e) … a doubt, success in science requires hard work.

f) Scientists rely … logical deduction in their research work.

g) This couldn’t be further … the truth.

h) He is extremely passionate … his work.

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Below you will find a partially completed mindplan that can be used while speaking about personality traits of a scientist.

a). Work in pairs to extend this mindplan. Write down some more key words and expressions for each heading. Then add three more headings with key words.

b). Choose any personality trait of a scientist and describe it to your partner.

Ex. 2. Work in pairs. Study the following topic card.

Describe a famous scientist.

You should say:

and explain

- why you consider him/her to be successful.

Take it in turns to speak about famous scientists. Before you begin, make a few notes. When you have finished speaking, your partner will ask you one or two «closing questions», e.g. Does any of your friends have personality traits to be a successful scientist?

Ex. 3. The text you have read describes personality traits of a successful scientist. Prioritize these traits from most to least important. Provide evidence in support of your opinion.

Ex. 4. Work in groups of 3 or 5. Choose any quotation given below and comment on it.

You may need to use linking expressions. Study the Useful language box on page 6.

Unit 3

How to build self-confidence

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the quiz below. Score one point for each ‘yes’ answer. When you have finished, count up the number of ‘yes’ answers you gave.

Are you a risk-taker?

a) Were you a child who enjoyed climbing to the top of the tallest tree?

b) Would you go to a party where you didn’t know anyone?

c) Would you resign from a job you didn’t like without having another one to go to?

d) Have you dramatically changed your appearance in the past two years?

e) Have you ever gone white-water rafting, bungee jumping or scuba diving?

f) Have you spoken or performed in front of an audience in the past two years?

g) In a restaurant, would you order the most unusual thing on the menu?

h) Would you be willing to climb an active volcano and look into the crater?

Study the Score interpretation table.

Score

Comment

7-8

You’re a thrill seeker and are not afraid of much in life.

5-6

You take limited risks but could probably afford to be a bit more adventurous.

Less than 4

You tend to play it safe but may be in danger of becoming stale.

Ex. 2. Work with your partner. Compare your results with those of the partner.

Do you both agree with them?

Do the results of the quiz really show what kind of person you are?

Give arguments to support your viewpoint.

While expressing your opinion and providing evidence, make use of the phrases given in the Useful language boxes on pages 5-6.

Ex. 3. Work in groups to discuss the following questions.

a) What are the times in life when it may be important to take a risk?

b) In what situations would you advise someone not to take a risk?

c) Can you think of a risk you have taken in your life? What happened?

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Work with another student to discuss this question.

Do you always feel confident in different life situations?

If yes, tell your partner what helped you to develop self-confidence. If not, what would you least like to experience and why? Choose from the table below or give your own examples.

- failure at exams,

- being publicly disgraced,

- being accused of something you haven’t done,

- begging for help / money,

- asking your boss for promotion.

Ex. 2. Take turns in asking and answering these questions.

a) If you are working on something and want to get it done, will sitting at home and thinking about it help you or just make you feel worse? Why?

b) If you want to gain courage and strength, will it be better if you look fear in the face? Why?

c) If you are afraid of making a speech, how can you overcome your fear?

d) Does failure help out? How?

e) What is more helpful: gaining experience by making your own mistakes or learning from other people’s mistakes? Why?

While expressing your opinion, make use of the phrases from the Useful language box on page 5.

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. The text you are going to read has no title. But there is a list of subheadings below. Look them through and guess what this text is about.

List of subheadings

Paragraphs

1. Prepare.

Paragraph A

2. Take action. Get it done.

Paragraph B

3. Realize that failure or being wrong will not kill you.

Paragraph C

4. Understand in what order things happen.

Paragraph D

5. Get to know who you are and what you want out of life.

Paragraph E

6. Face your fear.

Paragraph F

Ex. 2. Look through the first paragraph of the text and find sentences that confirm or correct your guess.

Ex. 3. Skim the text (paragraphs A-F) and choose the correct subheading for each paragraph from the list of subheadings above. Find the information in each paragraph in support of the choice made.

I believe that one of the most common wishes is simply to feel more confident in various situations in life. But how? Confident friends may say: "Well, just be confident, man!" However, to a person that doesn't feel that confident this piece of advice may not be very helpful at all. There are however some time-tested and timeless pieces of advice.

A. The most important step in building self-confidence is simply to take action. Sitting at home and thinking about it will just make you feel worse. Here are three of my favourite ways to make it easier to take action:

B. Having experiences where you face your fear is what really builds self confidence. There are certain ways to face your fears.

C. When you do things you don't just build confidence in your ability to handle different situations. You also experience progressive desensitization. It means that situations like, for example, public speaking become more and more normal in your life. After having done whatever you fear a dozen times or so you may think: “Is that it?” You may even get a bit angry with yourself.

D. When you know nothing of what you are about to do it's very easy to get lost in vague, foggy fear and start building big horror scenarios in your mind of what may happen if you give it a try. Preparing yourself and educating yourself can be a big help here. So prepare and you will feel more comfortable and confident.

E. Again, you have to face your fear. Because it is only then that you discover that failure won’t kill you and the sky will not fall down. Here are four ways that failure can help you out:

And remember, the world doesn't revolve around you. You may like to think so. But it doesn’t. People really don't care that much about what you do. They have their own life, problems and worries.

F. To build confidence in yourself you have to get to know yourself better. Go exploring. Face some of your fears. Fail over and over. Grow stronger through such experiences. When you know more about who you are and what you want out of life you will have more confidence in yourself and what you can do. What other people say or think will have less impact on you as you will trust your own opinion and ability. This will of course take time. So get started now.

Ex. 4. Scan the text to find the paragraphs which contain relevant information for answering the following questions. Give answers to these questions.

a) What do people realize when they fail?

b) When you do things, what do you experience?

c) What is one way of dissuading yourself from taking action?

d) When will you have more confidence in life?

e) What is one way of becoming more curious?

f) What can be a big help if you are about to do something you know nothing of?

Ex. 5. Complete these sentences with words and phrases from the text.

a) When you do things you build ….

b) If you want to build confidence in yourself ….

c) You are closed up when ….

d) When you fail you can ….

e) If you relax and lighten up ….

f) It is very easy to get lost ….

Ex. 6. Below you will find a list of quotations related to the problem under consideration. Match them with suitable paragraphs of the text. Provide evidence in support of your choice.

a) One important key to success is self-confidence. An important key to self-confidence is preparation.

b) The world has the habit of making room for the man whose words and actions show that he knows where he is going.

c) Nothing builds self-esteem and self-confidence like accomplishment.

d) Confidence comes not from always being right but from not fearing to be wrong.

e) The way to develop self-confidence is to do the thing you fear.

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Try to learn the other family members of each word. What nouns and/or adjectives can be formed from the verbs.

to vary to experience to help

to confide to feel to comfort

to act to scare to fail

to favour to fear to care

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using appropriate words from exercise 1.

a) This piece of advice may not be very … to a person who doesn’t feel … .

b) People can learn a lesson and gain … when they fail.

c) Quite often our … is based on unhelpful interpretation.

4) If you prepare yourself you will feel more ... and confident.

5) ... can help you out.

6) I can name three of my ... ways that will make it easier to take ... .

7) Public speaking may seem ... at first.

8) Remember that people don’t really ... that much about what you do.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) When we do things we build confidence in our ability to handle different situations.

b) How can one become more curious?

c) There are some time-tested and timeless pieces of advice.

d) When you grow stronger and become more internally relaxed you will trust your own opinion.

e) When you are stuck in fear you are closed up.

f) One way to dissuade yourself from taking action is to take too seriously something you are about to do.

g) Misjudging situations can cause fear.

h) People can gain experience when they handle different situations.

Ex. 4. Study the context and match each word in bold type in the sentences given above to the correct definition from the table below.

1) to advise against;

2) belief in oneself or others or in what is said, reported, etc;

3) feeling caused by the nearness or possibility of danger or evil;

4) to judge or estimate wrongly;

5) unending, not to be thought of as having duration;

6) to believe in reliability of something;

7) process of acquiring knowledge or skill by doing things;

8) eager to learn/know something.

Word partners

Ex. 5. Choose an appropriate verb from the box to combine with a noun or an adjective. Sometimes verbs can be combined with more than one noun or adjective.

feel misjudge become face

make take build gain

curious confidence

experience comfortable

situation fear

mistake action

Ex. 6. Complete the following sentences using word partners from exercise 5. Use the verbs in the necessary form.

a) If you are about to do something you know nothing of, prepare yourself and you … … .

b) Sometimes you have to fail if you want to learn a lesson and … .

c) Don’t be afraid of … … .

d) … … becomes a very natural thing if you really want it.

e) Anyone can … … .

f) Action … … and courage.

g) … your … and you will gain strength and courage.

h) How can one … more … ?

Ex. 7. Fill in the missing prepositions in these sentences.

a) If you relax a bit and lighten … you will realize that you create negative feelings and problems in your mind.

b) Don’t focus … your fear.

c) When you are stuck … fear you are closed … .

d) The most important step … developing self-confidence is simply taking action.

e) Thanks … your curiosity your life can become more interesting.

f) People like to look … patterns.

g) Even failure can help you … .

h) You should know that people don’t care much … you and what you do.

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Below you will find a partially completed mindplan that can be used while describing important steps in building self-confidence.

a). Work in pairs to extend this mindplan. Write down some more key words and expressions for each heading. Then add four more headings with key words.

b). Which piece of advice would you give to your friend? If necessary, give some examples in support of your opinion.

Ex. 2. Work in pairs. Study the following topic card.

Describe a self-confident person.

You should:

and explain

why you consider him/her a confident person.

Take it in turns to speak about a person who, in your opinion, managed to gain confidence. Before you begin, make a few notes. When you have finished speaking, your partner will ask you one or two questions.

Ex. 3. The text you have read contains a number of recommendations to follow if you want to develop confidence. Some of them are given below. Prioritize them in the order from least important to most important.

You may require some phrases to express your opinion. Study the Useful language box given on page 5.

Your partner may wish to challenge your opinion. He may need expressions from the Useful language box on page 13.

Ex. 4. Work in groups of 3-4. Choose any quotation given below and comment on it.

a) Never bend your head. Always hold it high. Look at the world straight in the face.

b) Confidence is courage at ease.

c) Inaction breeds doubt and fear. Action breeds confidence and courage. If you want to conquer fear, do not sit at home and think about it. Go out and get busy.

d) I quit being afraid when my first venture failed and the sky didn’t fall down.

e) Don’t listen to anyone who tells you that you can’t do this or that. That’s nonsense. Never let anyone persuade you that things are too difficult or impossible.

Your partner may wish to challenge your opinion. He may need expressions from the Useful language box on page 13.

Unit 4

Six ways to overcome procrastination

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the quiz below. For each statement choose the answer that best describes you. When you have finished, score your results.

1) I tend to delay finishing things, even when I know they are important.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

2) Whenever I face a deadline, I always wait until the very last minute.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

3) I have a tough time getting started, particularly with things that I don’t enjoy doing.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

4) When something is difficult or I am not sure how to do it, I tend to put it off until later.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

5) I like to make plans and to-do lists and I also follow through on them.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

6) I often myself stressed out by things I need to get done at the last minute.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

7) I regularly wait until the last moment to pay bills.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

8) Why do today what I can put off until tomorrow sounds like my motto.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

9) I’d like to improve my time management skills and habits, but it just seems like too much work.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

10) When I’m working, I like to indulge in “time wasters” like playing online games, repeatedly checking my email, or browsing social networking websites.

a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No

Study the Results interpretation table.

Results

Comment

Mostly As

If you have answered A on most of the questions, then you probably have a serious problem with procrastination. Your habit of putting things off might be having a negative impact on multiple areas of your life, including your personal life, work, and social life.

Mostly Bs

If you have answered B on most of the questions, then you probably don’t have a terribly serious problem with procrastination. Sure, you might find yourself dawdling on certain things, but you have managed to avoid making a habit out of dithering.

Mostly Cs

If you have answered C on most of the questions, then you are not much of a procrastinator. You are good at organizing your time. You enjoy tackling projects and crossing them off your to-do list.

Ex. 2. Work with your partner. Compare your answers with those of the partner.

Do you both agree with the results?

Give arguments to support your opinion.

While expressing your viewpoint and providing evidence, make use of the phrases given in the Useful language boxes on pages 5-6.

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Split into two groups. Those who have answered A on most of the questions (group 1 students) make a list of disadvantages of being procrastinators. Those who have answered C on most of the questions (group 2 students) make a list of advantages of being well-organized and punctual people.

Ex. 2. Take it in turns to name merits of well-organized people and drawbacks of procrastinators. If necessary, support your opinion with some examples.

While enumerating advantages or disadvantages, make use of the phrases given in the Useful language boxes on pages 5-6.

Ex. 3. Work in pairs.

Student A. - You have a serious problem with procrastination and you can’t overcome your habit of putting things off. Ask your partner for advice. Student B. – You are a well-organized person. Give some pieces of advice to your groupmate.

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Read the title of the text. What is the topic?

Ex. 2. Look through the first two paragraphs and find sentences that prove or disprove your guess.

Ex. 3. Skim the text (paragraphs A-G) and choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number in the spaces provided.

List of headings

Paragraphs

1. Eliminate distractions.

Paragraph A

2. Recognize the onset of procrastination.

Paragraph B ….

3. Final thoughts.

Paragraph C

4. Make a list.

Paragraph D

5. Deal with your fear.

Paragraph E

6. Break projects down into more manageable segments.

Paragraph F

7. Reward yourself.

Paragraph G

Six ways to overcome procrastination

Procrastination is one of those things that even the punctual and most well-organized fall victim to at some point or another. Think about the last time you found yourself watching television when you really should have been doing homework. While common, procrastination can have a detrimental impact on your life, including your grades. So what can students and other people do to overcome procrastination and avoid the stress, anxiety and poor performance that stems from completing assignments at the last second? Researchers suggest that developing a schedule, carefully planning academic tasks, and improving time-management skills are all effective ways to cope with procrastination.

A. Fear is one of the factors that contribute to procrastination. This can involve a fear of failure, a fear of making mistakes, or even a fear of success. Psychologist Susan Krauss Whitbourne suggests that challenging your faulty beliefs is important. If you are afraid of success because you believe that you don't deserve it, it is important to realize that your self-handicapping might be keeping you from achieving your goals. By addressing your fear, you can begin to overcome your procrastination habit.

B. Start by creating a to-do list with things that you would like to accomplish. If necessary, put a date next to each item if there is a deadline that you need to meet. Estimate how long each task will take to complete, and then double that number so that you don't fall into the cognitive trap of underestimating how long each project will take.

С. When you are faced with a big project, you might feel hopeless when you look at the amount of work involved. At this point, take individual items on your list and break them down into a series of steps. If you need to write a paper for class, what steps do you need to follow? If you are planning a big family event, what are the things you need to do? Once you have created a list detailing the process you need to go through in order to accomplish the task, you can start working on individual baby steps.

D. As you start to tackle items on your list, pay attention to when thoughts of procrastination start to creep into your mind. If you find yourself thinking “I don't feel like doing this now”, then you need to recognize that you are about to procrastinate. Instead of giving into the urge, force yourself to spend at least a few minutes working on the task. In many cases, you might find that it is easier to complete once you get started.

E. It's hard to get any real work done when you keep turning your attention to what's on television or you keep checking your friends Facebook status updates. Assign yourself a period of time during which you turn off all distractions - such as music, television, and social networking sites - and use that time to focus your attention on the task at hand.

F. Once you have completed a task, it is important to reward yourself for your efforts. Give yourself the opportunity to indulge in something that you find enjoyable, whether it's attending a sporting event, playing a video game, or watching your favourite TV show.

G. Breaking the procrastination habit isn't easy. After all, if it was simple there wouldn't be so many students engaging in procrastination on a regular basis. The urge to put things off can be strong, especially when there are so many things around us to provide entertaining distractions. While procrastination might not be something you can avoid entirely, being aware of the reasons why you procrastinate and how to overcome those tendencies can help. By implementing these strategies, you might find that it is easier to put your nose to grindstone and get started on those important tasks.

Ex. 4. Read paragraphs A-F of the text and answer questions a) – f) given below. Choose no more than 3-5 words from the passage for each answer.

a) What contributes to procrastination?

b) What should one start with?

c) If you have a big project, what are you recommended to do?

d) When do thoughts of procrastination start to creep into your mind?

e) Why is it difficult to concentrate?

f) What is necessary to do after completing a task?

Ex. 5. Look at the following list of pieces of advice on how to avoid procrastinating. Match each piece of advice with a suitable paragraph.

a) If you have completed a task, indulge in something that you find enjoyable.

b) Force yourself to work on the task even if you don’t feel like doing it now.

c) If you are aware of the reasons for procrastinating, it can help you to break the procrastination habit.

d) If the task is too difficult to fulfill, divide it into several steps.

e) Don’t divert your attention away from the task you are trying to fulfill.

f) If you are afraid of something, don’t let your fear prevent you from carrying out your task.

g) If you have too many tasks to perform, create a to-do list.

Ex. 6. Scan paragraphs A-G to complete these sentences with words or phrases from the text.

a) You can start overcoming your procrastination habit … .

b) If you would like to accomplish several things … .

c) As soon as you have created a detailed list … .

d) If you find yourself thinking … .

e) Turn off all distractions … .

f) It is important to reward yourself … .

g) If you implement these strategies … .

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Choose the correct prefix or suffix to form the opposite of the following words.

dis – in – mis – un – im – -less

aware possible complete

advantage effective perfect

hope fault attentive

understand necessary belief

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences with the words from exercise 1.

a) People might feel … when they look at a long list of things to be done.

b) She was rather … while carrying out her experiments.

c) He must be … of her problems.

d) You must have … me.

e) His reasoning proved …

f) There are several … ways to overcome procrastination.

g) It is … to put a date next to each item.

h) It is … to eliminate all distractions.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) You are about to procrastinate if you find yourself thinking “I don’t feel like doing this now”.

b) Challenging your faulty beliefs is important.

c) Turn off all your distractions if you want to fulfill your tasks.

d) Fear can contribute to procrastination.

e) When you have completed your task, busy yourself with something that you find enjoyable.

f) You might feel hopeless when you look at the amount of work involved.

g) The urge to put things off can be strong, especially when there are so many entertaining distractions.

h) When you start to tackle items on you list pay attention to when thoughts of procrastination start to creep in to your mind.

Ex. 4. Study the context and match each word in bold type in the sentences given above to the correct definition from the table below.

1) feeling caused by the nearness or possibility of danger or evil;

2) giving or promising no hope;

3) giving joy, pleasant;

4) keep on putting off;

5) something annoying and unwelcome;

6) wrong, imperfect;

7) deal with;

8) strong desire.

Word partners

Ex. 5. Choose an appropriate verb from the box to combine with a noun.

cope with meet accomplish focus

make have provide attend

deadline impact

attention procrastination

list task

event distraction

Ex. 6. Complete the following sentences using word partners from exercise 5. Use the verbs in the necessary form.

a) If you improve your time-management skills you can … …

b) … a to-do … will help you … …

c) There is usually a … that one has to …

d) Procrastination can … detrimental … on your life.

e) Assign yourself some period of time during which you … … on the task you must fulfill.

f) You can do whatever you like, e.g., … a sporting … when you have completed the task.

g) There are so many things around us that … entertaining …

Ex. 7. Fill in the missing prepositions in these sentences.

a) If you don’t want to fall … a trap of underestimating how long each task will take, it is advisable to double the time you need.

b) It is difficult to concentrate if you keep turning your attention … what’s on television.

c) Poor performance stems … completing tasks at the last moment.

d) Indulge yourself … amusements if you have completed your assignment.

e) If you are … to procrastinate, make yourself work on your task.

f) Even well-organized people fall victim … procrastination.

g) Several factors contribute … procrastination.

h) If you follow all these tips it will be easier for you to put your nose … grindstone.

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Below you will find a partially completed mindplan that can be used while discussing the problem of procrastination.

a). Work in pairs to extend this mindplan. Write down some more key words and expressions for each heading. Then add three more headings with key words.

b). Which piece of advice would you give to your friend? If necessary, give some examples in support of your opinion. Do you follow it yourself?

Ex. 2. Work in pairs. Study the following topic card.

Describe a well-organized person.

You should

if not, explain how he/she acquired time-management skills;

if yes, name recommendations he/she followed to cope with procrastination.

Take it in turns to describe a well-organized person. Before you begin, make a few notes. When you have finished speaking, your partner will ask you several “closing questions, e.g. Would you recommend other people to follow the way he/she became a well-organized person?

Ex. 3. Work in pairs. Prioritize the following pieces of advice from most to least important.

You may require some phrases to express your opinion. Study the Useful language box given on page 5 and make use of these phrases. It’s quite possible that you may wish to add some more pieces of advice.

Your partner may wish to challenge your opinion. He may need expressions from the Useful language box on page 13.

Ex. 4. Work in groups of 3 or 4. Choose any quotation given below and comment on it.

a) Tomorrow is often the busiest day of the week.

b) How soon not now becomes never.

c) To think too long about doing a thing often becomes undoing.

d) If you want to make an easy job seem mighty hard, just keep putting off doing it.

e) You don’t have to see the whole staircase, just take the first step.

f) Do the hardest jobs first. The easy jobs will take care of themselves.

g) Much of the stress that people feel doesn’t come from having too much to do. It comes from not finishing what they started.

You may need to use linking expressions. Study the Useful language box on page 6.

UNIT 5

How self-motivated are you?

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the quiz below. For each statement choose the answer that best describes you. Score one point for each ‘Not at all’ answer, two points for each ‘Rarely’ answer, three points for each ‘Sometimes’ answer, four points for each ‘Often’ answer, five points for each ‘Very often’ answer. When you finish, total up your score.

Statements to answer

Not at all

Rarely

Sometimes

Often

Very often

1. I'm unsure of my ability to achieve the goals I set for myself.

1

2

3

4

5

2. When working on my goals, I put in maximum effort and work even harder if I've suffered a setback.

1

2

3

4

5

3. I regularly set goals and objectives to achieve my vision for my life.

1

2

3

4

5

4. I think positively about setting goals and making sure my needs are met.

1

2

3

4

5

5. I use rewards (and consequences) to keep myself focused. For example, if I finish my report on time, I allow myself to take a coffee break.

1

2

3

4

5

6. I believe that if I work hard and apply my abilities and talents, I will be successful.

1

2

3

4

5

7. I worry about deadlines and getting things done, which causes stress and anxiety.

1

2

3

4

5

8. When an unexpected event threatens or jeopardizes my goal, I tend to walk away, set a different goal, and move in a new direction.

1

2

3

4

5

9. When I come up with a really good idea, I am surprised by my creativity. I figure it is my lucky day, and caution myself not to get used to the feeling.

1

2

3

4

5

10. I tend to do the minimum amount of work necessary to keep my boss and my team satisfied.

1

2

3

4

5

11. I tend to worry about why I won't reach my goals, and I often focus on why something probably won't work.

1

2

3

4

5

12. I create a vivid and powerful vision of my future success before embarking on a new goal.

1

2

3

4

5

Study the Score interpretation table.

Score

Comment

12-27

You allow your personal doubts and fears to keep you from succeeding. You've probably had a few incomplete goals in the past, so you may have convinced yourself that you aren't self-motivated – and then you've made that come true. Break this harmful pattern now, and start believing in yourself again.

28-43

You're doing OK on self-motivation. You're certainly not failing – however, you could achieve much more. To achieve what you want, try to increase the motivation factors in all areas of your life.

44-60

Wonderful! You get things done, and you don't let anything stand in your way. You make a conscious effort to stay self-motivated, and you spend significant time and effort on setting goals and acting to achieve those goals. You attract and inspire others with your success. Treasure this – and be aware that not everyone is as self-motivated as you are!

Ex. 2. Work with your partner. Compare your results with those of the partner.

Do you both agree with them?

Give arguments to support your opinion.

While expressing your opinion and providing evidence, make use of the phrases given in the Useful language boxes on pages 5 and 6.

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Choose any of the problem questions given below and answer it. If necessary, give examples to support your opinion.

a) Can failure be a motivator? Why?

b) Is fear an effective way to motivate people? Why?

c) Is everyone motivated by the same things? Why?

d) Is desire a key factor in motivation? Why?

e) Is it important to celebrate from time to time as we move towards our goals? Why?

Ex. 2. Below you will find several pieces of advice on how to motivate yourself. Will you follow them? Comment on them.

a) Read motivational books and listen to motivational tapes.

b) Make wise choices.

c) Keep a record of your successes and achievements.

d) Be persistent and well-organized.

e) Have balance in your life.

f) Set tangible goals.

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Read the title of the text and guess what this text is about.

Ex. 2. Skim the first paragraph of the text and find sentences that confirm or correct your guess.

How self-motivated are you?

Self-motivation is complex. It's linked to your level of initiative in setting challenging goals for yourself; your belief that you have the skills and abilities needed to achieve those goals; and your expectation that if you put in enough hard work, you will succeed.

Four factors are necessary to build the strongest levels of self-motivation: self-confidence and self-efficacy; positive thinking, and positive thinking about the future; focus and strong goals; a motivating environment.

A. Part of being self-motivated is having good levels of self-assurance, self-confidence, and self-efficacy. Being highly self-assured means that you will set challenging goals for yourself. Self-efficacy is a belief in your own ability to succeed, and your ability to achieve the goals you set for yourselves. This belief has a huge impact on your approach to goal setting and your behavioural choices as you work toward those goals. High self-efficacy results in an ability to view difficult goals as a challenge. By developing a general level of self-confidence in yourself, you will not only believe you can succeed, but you'll also recognize and enjoy the successes you've already had. That, in turn, will inspire you to build on those successes.

B. Positive thinking is closely related to self-confidence as a factor in self-motivation. It's important to look at things positively, especially when things aren't going as planned and you're ready to give up. If you think that you won't succeed, this may influence things in such a way that your predictions will come true. This is particularly the case if you need to work hard to achieve success. Your thoughts can have a major influence on whether you succeed or fail, so make sure those thoughts are "on your side." Positive thinking also helps you think about an attractive future that you want to realize. When you expect positive results, your choices will be more positive, and you'll be less likely to leave outcomes to fate or chance.

C. As we've said above, a key part of building self-motivation is to start setting strong goals. These give you focus, a clear sense of direction, and the self-confidence that comes from recognizing your own achievement. First, determine your direction through effective goal setting. When you set a goal, you make a promise to yourself. Part of the strength of this is that it gives you a clear direction. Part is that you've made this promise to yourself, and you'll want to keep this promise. And part is that it's a challenge, and it's fun to try to meet that challenge!

But don't set just any goal. Your goal should have the following characteristics: clarity, challenge, commitment, regularity of feedback, sufficient respect for complexity.

When you have a variety of goals, be sure to schedule your time and resources effectively. Prioritize and establish a schedule that will help you to succeed. If you fully understand your priorities, you probably won't feel as pressured to do everything at once. This can reduce stress and help you to concentrate on the most important strategies.

D. The final thing to focus on is surrounding yourself with people and resources that help you with your internal motivation. These external factors will help you get motivated from the outside. You can't just rely on these "environmental" or outside elements alone to motivate you, but you can use them for extra support.

When you start your self-motivation program, you may tend to rely heavily on these external factors. As you get more comfortable and confident with your self-motivation, you'll probably use them only as needed, and for a little extra help.

Ex. 3. Scan paragraphs A-D of the text and answer questions a) – h) given below. Choose no more than 4-7 words from the passage for each answer.

a) What does being self-assured mean?

b) What is self-efficacy?

c) When is positive thinking of great importance?

d) What can have a major influence on whether you succeed or fail?

e) What is a key part of building self-motivation?

f) What characteristics of goals can you name?

h) What external factors can help us to get motivated?

Ex. 4. There are several steps that a person should take if he wants to:

Below you will find a list of these steps. Match each step with a suitable paragraph A, B or D.

1) Challenge your negative thoughts, and replace them with positive ones.

2) Ask your boss for specific objectives to help you measure your success.

3) Think about the achievements in your life.

4) Become aware of your thoughts.

5) Look for team opportunities.

6) Examine your strengths to understand what you can build on.

7) Create a vivid picture of what it will be like to achieve your goals.

8) Set achievable goals for yourself, work to achieve them, and enjoy that achievement.

9) Ask for interesting assignments.

10) Try not to work by yourself too much.

11) Develop statements that you can repeat to yourself throughout the day. These statements should remind you of what you want to achieve, and why you will achieve it.

12) Practise positive thinking until you automatically think about yourself and the world in a positive way, every day.

13) Buddy up with people who you trust to be supportive.

Ex. 5. Complete these sentences with words and phrases from the text.

a) Self-motivation is connected to your …

b) If you develop a general level of self-confidence, …

c) Having good levels of self-assurance, …

d) Positive thinking is closely …

e) You will be less likely to leave outcomes ...

f) If a person sets a goal, …

g) When you have several goals to achieve, …

h) Surround yourself with …

Ex. 6. Below you will find a table where five main characteristics of a goal and their definitions are given. Match the characteristics and their definitions.

Characteristics of a goal

Definitions

Clarity

Goals should be attainable, and should be relevant, i.e. they should contribute in a significant way to the major objectives you're trying to achieve.

Commitment

If the goal involves complex work, make sure that you don't over-commit yourself. Complex work can take an unpredictably long time to complete.

Challenge

Monitor your progress towards your goals regularly to maintain your sense of momentum and enthusiasm, and enjoy your progress towards those goals.

Regularity of feedback

Goals should be difficult enough to be interesting, but not so difficult that you can't reach them.

Sufficient respect for complexity

Effective goals are clear, measurable, specific, and based on behavior, not outcomes.

If you have your own ideas on how to interpret each characteristic, express your opinion.

Focus on reading

Word building

Ex. 1. Try to learn the other family members of each word. What nouns and/or adjectives can be formed from the verbs below?

to motivate to believe to direct

to succeed to think to choose

to challenge to predict to achieve

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using appropriate words from exercise 1.

a) A key part of building … is to start setting goals.

b) Goals should be … .

c) Self-efficacy is a … in your own ability to … .

d) Positive … is of importance in self-motivation.

e) Your life tomorrow will be the result of your attitudes and the … you make today.

f) One should set … goals for himself.

g) Your …will come true if you think that you won’t succeed.

h) When you start setting goals, you will have a clear sense of … .

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) Prioritize and establish a schedule that will help you to succeed.

b) Challenge your negative thoughts.

c) Effective goals setting helps to build self-motivation.

d) When you expect positive results, your choices will be more positive.

e) Your thoughts can have a major influence on whether you succeed or fail.

f) Try to look at things positively, especially when you are ready to give up.

g) If you put in enough hard work, you will succeed.

h) Self-confidence is closely connected to positive thinking.

Ex. 4. Study the context and match each word in bold type in the sentences given above to the correct definition from the table below.

1) able to bring about the result intended;

2) outcomes, effects;

3) as great as is needed; as much or as many as necessary;

4) a programme or timetable for work;

5) ideas, opinions, etc;

6) in the condition for doing something; willing to do something;

7) in a close manner;

8) to be unsuccessful.

Word partners

Ex. 5. Choose an appropriate verb from the box to combine with a noun or an adjective. Each verb can be used once only.

to set

to have

to enjoy

to keep

to feel

to reduce

to work

to monitor

to put in

to develop

to rely on

to schedule

stress factors progress hard

goal time success promise

confident self-confidence impact work

Ex. 6. Complete the following sentences using word partners from exercise 5. Use the verbs in the necessary form.

a) When you … more …., you will use external factors only as needed.

b) Sometimes it is difficult to … … .

c) … your … towards your goals regularly.

d) If you have too many goals, … … .

e) You will want to … … if you have made it.

f) … … you have already achieved.

g) If you … … in yourself, you will succeed.

h) If you don’t feel pressured to do everything at once, this can result in … … .

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Below you will find a partially completed mindplan that can be used while discussing the main factors that are necessary to build the strongest level of self-motivation.

a). Work in pairs to extend this mindplan. Write down some more key words and expressions. Then add two more headings with key words.

b). In your opinion, which of the factors given in the mindplan above is of the utmost importance for building self-motivation? If necessary, give some examples to support your opinion.

Your partner may wish to challenge your viewpoint. He may need expressions from the Useful language box given on page 13.

Ex. 2. Work in pairs. Study the following topic card.

Describe a self-motivated person.

You should:

if not, explain how he/she managed to become a self-motivated person;

if yes, name recommendations he/she gives that will help you to become a self-motivated person.

Take it in turns to speak about a self-motivated person. Before you begin, make a few notes. When you have finished speaking, your partner will ask you several “closing questions’, e.g., Would you recommend other people to follow the way she/he became a self-motivated person?

Ex. 3. Work with your partner. There are some more pieces of advice to follow if you want to become a self-motivated person. Prioritize them from most to least important. Give reasons in support of your opinion.

You may require some phrases to express your opinion. Study the Useful language box on page 5.

Your partner may wish to challenge your opinion. He may need expressions from the Useful language box on page 13.

Ex. 4. Work in groups of 3 or 4. Choose any quotation given below and comment on it.

a) The biggest mistake you can make is continually fearing you will make one.

b) If you believe in yourself, things are possible.

c) If you have the courage to begin, you have the courage to succeed.

d) Above all, challenge yourself. You may well surprise yourself at what strengths you have, what you can accomplish.

e) My life as a writer consists of 1/8 talent and 7/8 discipline.

f) You are the only problem you will ever have and you are the only solution.

g) It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.

h) When there is no enemy within, the enemies outside cannot hurt you.

You may need to use linking expressions. Study the Useful language box on page 6.

UNIT 6

Hurry sickness

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer these questions.

a) Do people tell you that you talk too quickly?

b) Do you seem to glance at your watch more than others?

c) When someone takes too long to get to the point do you want to hurry them along?

d) Are you often the first to finish at mealtimes?

e) When walking along a street, do you feel frustrated when you are stuck behind others?

f) Would you become irritable if you sat for an hour with nothing to do?

g) Do you walk out of restaurants or shops if there is even a short queue?

Ex. 2. Read the following article.

An experiment conducted in 32 cities has revealed that average walking speeds have increased by about 10 per cent since 1994. The steepest acceleration was found in Asian “tiger” countries such as China and Singapore, which have experienced particularly marked social and economic change. Pedestrians in these nations walk between 20 and 30 per cent faster than they did in the early 1990s.

Richard Wiseman, a professor of psychology at the university of Hertfordshire, who led the study, said the results were significant because walking speed was a good indicator of the pace of people’s lives.

Previous research carried out in 1994 showed that walking speeds are linked to other indicators of behaviours and even health. As people move faster they become less likely to help others, and also tend to have higher rates of coronary heart disease.

Professor Wiseman said: “While the effect of stress itself is actually quite small, what happens is that as people get more stressed and hurried they spend less and less time with their friends, they don’t have time to exercise, they smoke more. It’s these factors that build up to cause the risk.”

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions in your own words.

a) How have people’s walking speeds changed in recent years?

b) Which countries have the steepest acceleration?

c) Why are researchers interested in people’s walking speeds?

d) What did the research carried out in 1994 show?

e) What problems are associated with higher walking speeds?

Ex. 4. Find words in the text which mean the same as the following.

1 carried out 2 shown 3 important 4 sign 5 earlier 6 connected

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1 a). Complete each question in a suitable way. Practice asking and answering these questions with your partner.

a) How much time does it take you … ?

c) How much time do you have … ?

Ask your partner about: sleeping, having meals (breakfast, lunch, etc.), working (or studying), cooking, doing housework, doing the shopping, relaxing, doing sport, seeing friends, spending time with the members of his/her family, etc.

b). In your opinion, is your partner happy with his/her work-life balance? Support your viewpoint with some evidence.

Ex. 2. Work in pairs to discuss the information given in texts A and B.

A. (Dan, project manager, software company, Boston, USA).

I’m not happy with my work-life balance at all. I work at least 50 or 60 hours a week so I don’t have any time at all for myself or to see my children. I communicate with my wife by leaving messages on the fridge. We hardly ever see each other because we work different hours and I never have time to see my friends or keep fit. Also, I eat very badly because my lunch “hour” (about 10 minutes!) isn’t long enough for me to have a proper meal. OK, I earn a lot of money but I don’t have enough time. Is it worth it?

B. (Amilie, lawyer, Paris, France).

I didn’t use to have much time for anything because I was working too many hours – 45 or more a week. But then here in France the government decided that people should only work 35 hours a week. Nowadays I have plenty of time for myself. I play tennis two evenings a week, and I finish work at lunchtime on Friday, so I can have long weekends. I am much happier. I think when you have time to enjoy your personal life, you work much better.

Give answers to these two questions.

Focus on reading I

Ex. 1 a). Look at the title of the article on page 54. What do you think ‘hurry sickness’ could be?

b). Read through the article quickly and decide which of the following, A, B, C or D best describes its overall topic.

A Ways to improve your efficiency at work.

B Illnesses caused by working too hard.

C Problems arising from the increased pace of life.

D The importance of relaxation.

Ex. 2. Skim the text (sections A-H) and choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number in the spaces provided. Be careful as there are more headings than sections.

List of headings

Section

1. The effects of social change.

Section A …

2. How do we begin to tackle the problem?

Section B …

3. What are the effects on our health and why are we so susceptible?

Section C …

4. Who is responsible for the problem?

Section D …

5. Danger signs.

Section E …

6. A disease with no age limits

Section F …

7. What is the main reason for “hurry sickness”?

Section G …

8. A treatment for heart disease.

Section H …

9. What is the cause?

10. Is there a cure?

Hurry sickness

A. According to statistics, it is becoming increasingly rare in many Western countries for families to eat together. It seems that people no longer have time to enjoy a meal, much less buy and prepare the ingredients. Meanwhile, fast food outlets are proliferating. Further evidence of the effects of the increasing pace of life can be seen on all sides. Motorists drum their fingers impatiently at stop lights. Tempers flare in supermarket queues.

B. According to Barton Sparagon, an expert on stress-related illness, the above are all symptoms of a modern epidemic called hurry sickness. The term was invented nearly 40 years ago by a prominent cardiologist, who noticed that all of his heart disease patients had common behavioural characteristics, the most obvious being that they were in a chronic rush. Hurry sickness has been an issue in our culture ever since, but the problem is escalating in degree and intensity, leading to rudeness, short-tempered behaviour and even violence, alongside a range of physical ills.

C. The primary cause, according to Sparagon, is the increasing prevalence of technology – like email, cell phones, pagers and laptop computers. We can bring work home, into our bedrooms and on our vacations. Time has sped up for so many people, and there is increased pressure to do more in the same number of hours. Jill Stein, a sociologist at the University of California at Los Angeles, agrees that time is being more compressed than ever.

D. What about those annoying people who shout into their cell phones, unaware of those around them? Stein says that self-centred behaviour is related to larger social trends as well as technology. “There is a breakdown of the nuclear family, of community, of belonging; and an increased alienation and sense that we’re all disconnected from one another. This breakdown came before the technology, but the technology has exacerbated it.” Now we connect through this technology, says Stein, and we don’t have face-to-face interaction. Ironically, as people pull their cell phones out in the most unlikely venues, our personal lives are available on a public level as never before.

E. Sparagon claims that chronic impatience is damaging not only to our socia environment, but to our physical health. It builds, and then it doesn’t take much to explode. And for those who repress it, it’s equally damaging. The high-tech revolution and the lifestyle it has produced have brought with them a wide range of serious health problems, including heart attacks, palpitations, depression, anxiety, immune disorders, digestive problems, insomnia and migraines. Human beings are not designed for prolonged, high-speed activity. Our basic physiology has not evolved to keep pace with the technology. We are hard-wired to be able to handle a ‘fight-flight’ response where the stress ends within five to ten minutes. However, in our current culture we struggle for hours on end.

F. Even children are not spared the negative effects of modern-day overload. There’s a hidden epidemic of symptoms like hypertension, migraines and digestive problems among children as young as ten. Children are facing the same sense of overload, time pressure and demands that their parents experience, says Sparagon, “and they don’t have coping mechanisms to deal with it.”

G. Recovery is possible, but Sparagon emphasises that there is no quick fix. Many of these stress-related behaviours have become deeply ingrained to the point where people are hardly aware of them. The greatest paradox is that even when people are ready to change their behaviour, they are in a hurry to do so.

H. Sparagon works with people to become aware of their stress and the impact it’s having on their lives. They examine their belief systems (What is really important? What can they let go of?) and they learn to challenge their behaviours. One popular exercise is to assign a chronically impatient person to stand in the longest line in the grocery store. The only answer is to take it one day at a time. The irony is that all the techniques and technology designed to streamline our lives may ultimately be counterproductive. As Sparagon says, “People are finding that all of this multi-tasking, rushing and worrying is not only making life intolerable, but actually making them less efficient than they could otherwise be.”

Ex. 3. Scan the text to complete these sentences with words or phrases from the text.

a) Barton Sparagon is a doctor who researches … .

b) The term ‘hurry sickness’ has been in use for … .

c) Jill Stein works as … .

d) The self-centred behaviour is … .

e) Chronic impatience is … .

f) The high-tech revolution has brought … .

g) Children face the same … .

h) Though people are ready to … .

i) Sparagon tries to make people become … .

Ex. 4. Read sections A-E and answer questions a) - f) given below.

a) What are symptoms of hurry sickness?

b) Who invented the term hurry sickness?

c) What did heart disease patients have in common?

d) What does Jill Stein mean when she says that time is being more compressed than ever?

e) What do people prefer nowadays: to have face-to-face interaction or to connect through their mobile phones?

f) What are people hard-wired to be able to do?

Ex. 5. Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

One result of technology and the increased pace of life is that people

A frequently meet colleagues in public places.

B have personal telephone conversations in public.

C need to visit therapists on a regular basis.

D no longer have offices to work from.

Ex. 6. Find in the text and read two statements that are results rather than causes of hurry sickness.

Ex. 7. Complete the summary below. Choose no more than three words from the text for each answer.

Hurry sickness is not new condition but it has increased both in 1 in recent years, mainly as a result of the rapid development of 2 Typical symptoms include chronic impatience, which experts believe can have potentially serious effects not only on those around us but also on our 3 . The fact that children are also beginning to suffer from a variety of health problems suggests that they are as vulnerable to the pressures of modern life as their parents. Curing the condition is a slow process, which requires the sufferer to 4 the stress in their lives, and try to change their behaviour patterns.

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Make nouns and adjectives from the following verbs.

Verb

Noun

Adjective

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences with words from exercise 1.

a) After half-term, the … of the course will change to exam preparation.

b) Moving home is supposed to be one of the most ... life events.

c) Impatience … our physical health.

d) Price is decided through the … of supply and demand.

e) They made a detailed ... of the data before drawing any conclusions.

f) Humans can’t be constantly involved in high-speed … .

Ex. 3. Choose the correct prefix to form the opposite of the following adjectives.

ab- in- un- im- dis-

a) accurate g) normal

b) available h) reliable

c) aware i) secure

d) capable j) significant

e) connect k) patient

f) possible l) efficient

Ex. 4. Complete these sentences with words from exercise 3.

a) Tests revealed an … level of cholesterol in his blood.

b) The problem only affected an … number of people.

c) You will lose marks for … spelling in the IELTS Listening test.

d) Two-thirds (62%) of parents are … of their child’s online contacts.

e) Unfortunately, funding for new computer equipment is … at present.

Word meaning

Ex. 5. Identifying the part of speech is helpful in working out the meaning of a word. Study the way the words in bold type are used in the examples below. Decide what part of speech each word in bold type is.

a) Hurry sickness has been an issue in our culture.

b) There is a breakdown of the nuclear family.

c) These problems result from unprecedented homework requirements.

d) Children don’t have the coping mechanisms to deal with it.

e) People should be aware of their stress and the impact it is having on their lives.

f) People learn to challenge their behaviours.

g) One exercise is to assign an impatient person to stand in the longest line in the store.

h) These techniques may ultimately be counterproductive.

Ex. 6. Study the context and match each word in bold type in the sentences given above to the correct definition from the table below.

Word partners

Ex. 1. Fill in the missing prepositions in these sentences.

a) According … Sparagon, the main reason … hurry sickness is technology.

b) Drivers become impatient … stop lights.

c) Time has sped … for many people.

d) How annoying when people shout … their mobile phones.

e) People connect … their mobile phones.

f) Children can’t cope … problems their parents usually face.

g) People are always … a hurry.

h) Stress has a great impact … their lives.

Focus on reading II

Ex. 1. Read the introduction to the article. What is the ‘counter-revolution?’

Ex. 2. Split into two groups. Group 1 students read the text “Do you eat Slow Food?” and find out the answers to these questions.

a) Who started the Slow Food movement? Why?

b) What did he think was wrong with today’s world?

c) What are the aims of the Slow Food movement?

d) How big is the Slow Food movement now?

Ex. 3. Group 2 students read the text “Would you like to live in a ‘Slow City’? and find out the answers to these questions.

a) How did the Slow City movement start?

b) What is the aim of the Slow City movement?

c) Where has it spread to?

d) What do the people of Aylsham in the UK think about living in a Slow City?

Slow down, you move too fast

The clock rules our lives. The more we try to save time, the less time we seem to have. In every area of our lives we are doing things faster. And many of us live in towns and cities which are getting noisier and more stressful as each day passes. But now a worldwide movement, whose aim is to slow life down, has started a counter-revolution. Its supporters are people who believe that a happier and healthier way of life is possible...

Do you eat Slow Food ‘Slow Food’?

The Slow Food movement was founded the day that an Italian journalist, Carlo Petrini, saw that McDonald's had opened a restaurant in Piazza di Spagna, the beautiful square in Rome. He thought it was tragic that many people today live too quickly to sit down for a proper meal and only eat mass-produced fast food. He decided that he had to try to do something about it and so he started the Slow Food movement. Although he didn't succeed in banning McDonald's from Piazza di Spagna, Slow Food has become a global organization and now has more than 80,000 members in 100 countries. 'We believe,' says Fiona Richmond of Slow Food UK, 'that people should take time to enjoy food.' Slow Food also encourages people to eat local and regional food, to use local shops and markets, to eat out in small family restaurants, and to cook with traditional recipes. 'There is nothing more satisfying than relaxing around a lively table in the company of family and friends. The pleasure of eating quality food should be celebrated,' says Richmond.

Would you like to live in a ‘Slow City’?

The idea of 'Cittaslow' or 'Slow Cities' was inspired by the Slow Food movement and it was started by the mayor of the small Italian town of Greve in Chianti. The aim of Slow Cities is to make our towns places where people enjoy living and working, and where they value and protect the things that make the town different. Towns which want to become a Slow City have to reduce traffic and noise, increase the number of green areas, plant trees, build pedestrian zones, and promote local businesses and traditions. Many other small towns in Italy have joined the movement and it has spread to other countries all over the world, from the UK to Japan and Australia. Aylsham in the UK recently became a Slow City, and most people are delighted. Slow Cities are about having a community life in the town, so people don't come home from work, shut their doors and that's it,’ said a local resident. 'It is not "slow" as in "stupid". It is "slow" as in the opposite of "frantic" and "stressful". It is about quality of life.' But not everybody in Aylsham is happy. For teenagers, who have to go 25 km to Norwich, the nearest city, to buy trainers or CDs, living in a Slow City is not very attractive. ‘It's all right here,’ says Lewis Cook, 16. 'But if you want excitement, you have to go to Norwich. We need more things here for young people.'

Ex. 4. Group 1 students speak about the Slow Food movement. Use the answers to the questions given in exercises 2 a). Group 2 students speak about the Slow City movement. Make use of the answers to the questions of the previous exercise.

Ex. 5. Discuss the following questions.

a) Do you think these movements are a good idea? Why?

b) Would you like to become a member of the Slow Food movement? Why?

c) Would you like to live in a Slow City? Why?

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Work in pairs. Imagine that your town is thinking of becoming a ‘Slow City’ and is planning to do the following things.

Which of the above mentioned ideas would you agree/disagree with? Give some arguments in support of your opinion.

While expressing your viewpoint make use of the phrases given below.

Ex. 2. Work with your partner. Study the following topic card.

Describe a person who ‘does not suffer from a hurry sickness’.

Take it in turns to speak about a person who is never in a hurry and manages to do everything on time. Before you begin, make a few notes. When you have finished speaking, your partner will ask you several “closing questing” e.g. Would you like to become a person who is never in a hurry?

Ex. 3. Below will find a table with some pieces of advice to follow if you want to be happy with your work-life balance. Work with your partner to complete the sentences below (in this practice task each answer is two words).

Ten ways to slow down your life

At work

At home

7. After work, concentrate on ... other people.

8. Avoid ... .

9. Play a part in your ... .

10. Take up an activity like painting, learning a ... or a new sport.

Prioritize ten ways to slow down your life from most to least important. Give reasons for your opinion.

You may require some phrases to express your viewpoint. Study the Useful language box on page 5.

You partner may challenge your opinion. He may need expressions from the Useful language box on page 13

Ex. 4. Below you will find a quotation. Comment on it.

There is more to life than increasing its speed.

You may need to use linking expressions. Study the Useful language box on page 6.

Part 2

Unit I

Getting down to work and working effectively

Lead in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

a) Do you have any problems starting study or work?

b) Are you a lark or an owl? Is it easier for you to work at nights or in the daytime?

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Do you have any of the following study problems? Discuss them with your partner.

a) You have nowhere quiet to study or do research.

b) It is difficult to start and you feel guilty about it.

c) You don’t have enough time.

e) You don’t like the topic of research.

f) Other students are much better than you.

g) It is difficult to concentrate.

h) Lack of progress.

i) You have got other problems which distract you.

j) Your adviser reprimands you for not meeting the deadline.

Ex. 2. Prioritize the problems you have listed. What are the ways to cope with them?

Ex. 3. Work in pairs. Ask your partner the questions below. Add 2 or 3 questions of your own.

a) How are you getting on with your research?

b) I am falling behind a little. What about you?

c) Do you always get down to work as soon as you are given a task?

d) How do you think you will do in candidate exams?

i) Do you stick to the schedule or do you relax for a while and catch up with the others afterwards?

f) Do you take breaks for relaxing?

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Read the title of the reading passage. What is the topic?

Ex. 2. Look through the first paragraph and find sentences that confirm or correct your guess.

Ex. 3. Look at the mindmap for paragraph B and guess how the “focused mode” works. Scan the paragraph to see if you were right.

The habit of taking breaks helps us to get down to work and stay productive

Getting started might be a psychological problem. One way to avoid it is to get used to taking breaks at work. Just tell yourself in the morning. “I will relax, I will take breaks” and you will get straight to work without any problem. Researchers claim that it will make you happier, more focused and more productive whether you are working in an office or writing your thesis at home.

There scientific reasons to prioritize breaks at work

A. When you’re really in the groove of a task or project, the ideas are flowing and you feel great. But it doesn’t last forever – stretch yourself just a bit beyond that productivity zone and you might feel unfocused, zoned out or even irritable. What changes? The good news is that the fix for this unfocused condition is simple – all we need is a brief interruption to get back on track. University of Illinois psychology professor Alejandro Lieras explains: “From a practical standpoint, our research suggests that, when faced with long tasks (such as studying before a final exam or writing your thesis, it is best to impose brief breaks on yourself. Brief mental breaks will actually help you stay focused on your task!”

B. Our brains have two modes: the “focused mode,” which is our more relaxed, daydreamy mode when we’re not thinking so hard. You might think that focused mode is the one to optimize for more productivity, but diffuse mode plays a big role, too. In fact, although our brains were once thought to go dormant when we daydreamed, studies have that activity in many brain regions increases when our minds wander. Some studies have shown that the mind solves its stickiest problems while daydreaming – something you may have experience while driving or taking a shower. Breakthroughs that seem to come out of nowhere are often the product of diffuse mode thinking. That’s because the relaxation associated with daydream mode “can allow the brain to hook up and return valuable insights.

1

“When you’re focusing, you’re actually blocking your access to the diffuse mode. And the diffuse mode, it turns out, is what you often need to be able to solve a very difficult, new problem.”

C. Another prime benefit of breaks is that they allow us to take a step back and make sure we’re accomplishing the right things in the right way. When you work on a task continuously, it’s easy to lose focus and get lost in the weeds. In contrast, following a brief intermission, picking up where you left off forces let you take a few seconds to think globally about what you’re ultimately trying to achieve. It’s practice that encourages us to stay mindful of our objectives …

So we know taking breaks is a scientifically proven method for regaining our focus, sharpness and motivation. But taking a walk or a reading break in the middle of a workday? Can we really get over how guilty that’ll make us feel?

2

A study of office workers and managers by Staples discovered that even though 66 percent of employees spend more than eight hours a day at work, more than a quarter of them don’t take a break other than lunch. One in five employee respondents said guilt was the reason they don’t step away from their workspaces.

And that’s with 90 percent of the bosses surveyed saying that they encouraged breaks and 86 percent of employees agreeing that taking breaks makes them less stressed and more productive! It’s become normal to think that if you never take a break from work, you’ll get more done, get promoted and be more successful.

3

“When demand in our lives intensifies, we tend to hunker down and push harder,” says Tony Schwartz, head of New York City-based productivity consulting firm The Energy Project. “The trouble is that, without any downtime to refresh and recharge, we’re less efficient, make more mistakes, and get less engaged with what we’re doing.”

Here’s how Tim Kreider describes breaks in The New York Times: “Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is to the body, and deprived of it we suffer a mental affliction. It is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done.”

Ex. 4. Read the text carefully. Do the following statements agree with the information in the text?

a) Daydreamy mode is less productive than the focused one.

b) Major advances in research can be achieved only when you are focused.

c) In a diffuse mode it is easier to think globally.

d) Working continuously helps to retain motivation.

e) Most employees would feel guilty taking breaks other than lunch break.

f) Bosses tend to discourage breaks as the productivity suffers.

g) You will never be promoted if you often take breaks.

h) An employee feels exhausted when he is pressed for time.

Ex. 5. The passage below is taken from the text. Where should it be 1, 2 or 3?

Basically, the human brain just wasn’t built for the extended focus. Our brains are vigilant all the time because they evolved to detect tons of different changes to ensure our very survival. So focusing so hard on one thing for a long time isn’t something we’re ever going to be great at (at least for a few centuries).

Ex. 6. Skim the text (paragraphs A-C) and choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. There are 2 extra ones.

a) Breaks help us retain information and make connections.

b) Breaks help us to reevaluate our goals.

c) Breaks help us to keep fit.

d) Breaks keep us from getting bored and unfocused.

e) Breaks help us not to feel guilty about idling away the time.

Focus on Vocabulary I

Word building

Ex. 1. Complete the following table with the correct parts of speech.

verb

noun

adjective

psychology

to produce

irritation

valuable

solution

to prove

to charge

courage

Ex. 2. Choose words from the table to complete the sentences.

a) My research adviser ... me to take the topic for research.

b) I am an owl. I am more … at night.

c) When I come across minor problems it … and distresses me.

d) … is the science concerned with the way the mind works.

e) You can easily deduce ... of the theorem.

f) These debts are … to my account.

g) In choosing a job he always sets a high … on the pay offered.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. The text above contains a number of underlined words. Work out their meaning from the context.

Ex. 4. Give words and word combinations to characterize productive (A) and non-productive work (B) as stated in the article.

A B

...

Word partners

Ex. 5. Give synonyms to the underlined words and word combinations from the text.

a) It is very easy to improve this situation.

b) Advances in work and research are often due to diffuse mode of the brain.

c) In daydream mode the brain gets deep understanding of the problem.

d) When you work constantly it is easy to forget the objectives.

e) The boss urged them to take breaks.

f) Breaks are vital to the brain.

g) When the job is demanding we work strenuously.

h) The brain suffers mental trouble when it lacks idleness.

Focus on idioms

Ex. 6. Match the multi-word verbs in A to their definitions in B.

A

B

1) to get down to doing something

a) to be behind with something, not at the level expected

2) to keep up with someone/something

b) to start work on something

3) to take something down

c)to postpone, to decide to do something at a later date

4) to fall behind (with something)

d) to pass an exam or test

5) to hand something in

e) to check that something is correct, to examine something

6) to put something off

f) to reach the same standard or position as someone else

7) to get through (something)

g) to give something to someone in a position of authority

8) to scrape through (something)

h) to remain at the same standard or position as someone else

9) to catch up (with someone/something)

i) to record in writing what someone is saying

10) to go through something

j) to pass an exam but with a very low grade

Ex. 7. Paraphrase the sentences using the idioms in the box below. There are two odd ones.

a) Can I give you my homework tomorrow?

b) Can you check my homework to see if there are any mistakes?

c) Could we postpone our meeting until tomorrow?

d) I must begin work.

e) I didn’t pass the exam.

f) I passed my history exam with only 54%.

g) Can I write down your name and address?

h) She’s remaining at the same level as the other students in class.

i) Everyone in class is making progress with their studies, but I’m getting worse and worse.

j) I must try to reach the same level as the other students in my class.

Grammar Note. Someone and/or something

Some multi-word verbs can be used to talk about people (someone) and things (something) without any difference in meaning. In a dictionary these verbs have someone/something after them. However, some multi-word verbs change their meaning depending on whether they are talking about people or things. For example, to get on with someone and to get on with something are not the same:

Do you get on with your neighbours? = Do you have a good relationship with your neighbours?

How are you getting on with your studies? = What progress are you making with your studies?

Ex. 8. Make your own sentences with these idioms. Add some more information.

Example:

I do not get on well with my research adviser (my manager). I think he is too demanding.

Focus on speaking II

Read the text below and do the exercises.

George had problems with studying, so he wrote to a magazine problem page to ask for advice. Scan the text and find out what his study problems are.

Dear Marjorie,

I’m having problems with my studies at school. I find it difficult to get down to work in the evenings and I can’t concentrate on anything at the moment. I spend most of my time listening to records or watching TV instead of doing my homework. The other students in my class are much better than I am and I have difficulty in keeping up with them. I sometimes have problems with following the lessons as well. I can’t always take down the important things my teacher says because I write so slowly. She has told me that I’m falling behind with my studies. I’m not good at writing essays and I usually hand in my homework late because I put off doing it until the last minute. So I often have to invent silly excuses to explain why I haven’t done the work. I’m sure I’m not going to get through my final exams in June. I scraped through the exams last February with 54% - all the other students passed with flying colours. I’m now so far behind that I don’t know how I’m going to catch up with them. My teacher spent some time going through my homework with me but she found so many mistakes that I felt even more depressed. What do you suggest I do?

Yours desperately

Ex. 1. Pick out the multi-word verbs in the letter and try to work out what they mean.

Ex. 2. Use the multi-word verbs to make sentences about your working mode. Find out how many problems you have got in common with your partner.

Example:

As for me I do not find it difficult to get down to work in the evenings. In fact I feel at my best in the evening and at night.

Ex. 3. Give advice to George and encourage him.

Useful language: Giving advice and encouraging

You should

If I were you I would …

Pull yourself together, it is not as bad as it seems

You’d better …

Have you tried __ -ing?

Why don’t you try __ -ing?

Ex. 4. Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

a) What candidate exams will you pass by the skin of your teeth or with flying colours?

b) How useful is it to learn things parrot fashion?

c) What things did you learn by heart at school? Can you still remember them?

d) What are the arguments for and against learning things by heart?

e) What do you think is a good way to learn multi-word verbs and idiomatic expressions?

Ex. 5. Search the Internet and find information about problems with getting down to work which are not covered in the Unit. Report them to the group. Did famous scientists have similar problems?

Ex. 6. Your friend is on the point of giving up his master thesis. He claims he is terribly short of time, he can’t get himself started, he skips lectures on philosophy. What would you advise? Use phrases from the language box above.

Unit II

People at work

Lead in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

a) What was your first job? How old were you then?

b) What did you spend your first salary on?

Ex. 2. Read the text and prioritize the motivations mentioned.

Most people work because they need to earn a salary, but money is not the only motivation or reason why people work. People get job satisfaction from different factors, such as social interaction with colleagues. Status, that is your professional position, and achievement, doing something well, can be important. Some companies really value their employees and see them as the company’s main asset. Managing people well can lead to better results and higher productivity for the company, but this can be difficult to do. People respond differently to different styles of management. Some organizations give their workers freedom to develop their roles and others don’t.

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Look at the survey below, then choose six factors which are important for you. Compare them with a partner.

Factors considered when choosing your first job

I want to:

% of graduates

I want to:

% of graduates

Enjoy my job

72

Be passionate about the industry I work in

30

Like the people I work with

70

Have job security

30

Have enough money to afford the things I enjoy

64

Be in control of what I do

27

Receive training

63

Have a lot of freedom at work

21

Find the work stimulating

57

Work for a well-known company

18

Have an inspirational boss

41

Not have to work overtime or at weekends

17

Have a good social life

40

Have a job that will take me abroad

16

Have the opportunity to take professional qualifications

39

Have an excellent salary

15

Work for a respected company

35

Make other people think that what I do sounds good

11

Have a position of responsibility

30

Ex. 2. Work in pairs to answer the following questions.

a) How would the figures given in the chart change if people were asked about important factors in their jobs -when they are about 40 years old? 50? Account for changing such priorities with age.

b) Why is an excellent salary not considered important in one’s first job?

c) This survey was carried out in the US. Would the results be different in our country?

Ex. 3. Work in pairs. Ask your partner about his/her job Use the phrases from the language box to help you.

Useful language: Finding out about someone`s job

What does your job involve?

What do you do in your job?

What are your job responsibilities?

Do you have to …?

Are there any perks or extra benefits?

Do you have fixed working hours?

Talking about your job

I deal with … .

I’m responsible for __ -ing

I have to …

My job involves __ -ing

I am in charge of __ -ing

I enjoy __ -ing

I dislike __ -ing

I get on well with … .

Ex. 4. Put the following words and expressions in the logical order so as to make the life map of a University graduate. The beginning has been done.

To graduate from University … .

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Look at the heading of the reading passage and guess what it is going to be about.

Ex. 2. Scan the text and guess what the job qualification of a potential employee might be?

Priceless training, free thinking

Bring us free thinking and we’ll give you invaluable training for a unique career. Our 4 year Fast Stream Programme will give you an insight into the development of government policy, the complexities of tax law and practice, and how a major organization is managed. You will learn how different types of business operate and develop your skills so that you can take on the wide range of career opportunities we offer. Determined, with excellent interpersonal and communication skills, a strong analytical mind and the confidence to make critical decisions, you’ll need the drive and self-discipline to take on growing responsibilities and demanding exams at the same time. You’ll also need to have, or be expecting, a first or second class honours degree, and be free to join us in July in London or a range of locations in southern England and the Midlands. In return, as well as exceptional training, you can expect a starting salary between around £14,000 and £21,000 depending on location, qualifications and experience. If you meet our expectations you can expect to be earning £30,000 in 4 years. Only your potential counts with us. We are firmly committed to recruit, develop and promote people on their abilities, and will not discriminate on grounds of gender or race. For further information and an application form, write to Inland Revenue, Fast Stream Development Programme, HR Division, PO Box 55, Mowbray House, Castle Meadow Road, Nottingham, NG2 IBE quoting reference FS/G2. Telephone 01150974 0696. We must have your completed application form by 6 November.

Ex. 3. Read the text carefully and list the words and expressions that can be related to either of these headings.

What the employers demand excellent communication skills …

What the employers promise ... unique career …

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Complete the following table with the correct parts of speech.

noun

verb

adjective

value

...

analytical

expectation

...

to qualify

to promote

...

to apply for

to personalize

Ex. 2. Choose the correct part of speech.

a) We are ready to give you (value, invaluable, valueless) training.

b) You will acquire excellent (communicative, communication, communicable) skills.

c) You must have strong (confidential, confidence, confide) in yourself.

d) You need (to drive, the drive, driving) to be able to work effectively and to take (demanded, demanding, demand) exams.

e) We offer (exception, exceptionable, exceptional, excepting) training and good wages.

f) If you meet our (expectants, expectations, expectancies), your will be able to make a unique carreer.

g) You must submit your (applied, applying, applicant, application) form by th November, 1.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Explain the meaning of the underlined words or word combinations from the textPriceless training, free thinking” in your own words. Use them in sentences of your own.

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences with words or phrases from the reading passage .

a) The Master’s course will give you … into methodology of research.

b) IT companies offer a wide range of … for University graduates.

c) To be a good manager you must possess excellent … skills.

d) To meet the deadline you must exercise … .

e) Your salary will depend on … .

f) If you meet our … we are ready to offer you priceless training.

Focus on speaking II

Read the dialogue below and do the exercises to follow.

Dan is having a performance appraisal with his line manager.

Int: Right, Dan. You know that the aim of this performance appraisal is to look at how you’re doing and to identify any areas where you need to make some changes. So, what’s your assessment? How are you getting on?

Dan: Pretty good, I guess. I’m really enjoying the work here.

Int: That’s good to hear. Is there anything you’re particularly pleased with?

Dan: Erm, yeah. I was very pleased with the way things went on the Silverton project. It was a great team – really motivating to work with them, and to learn from them.

Int: Good, yes, I think you worked really well on that project ….

Int: OK. So now are there any aspects of the job where you think there is room for improvement?

Dan: Well I’m still having some difficulties with my time management.

Int: Why do you think that is?

Dan: I guess I’m a bit too optimistic about how much I can do in a day! But I really do want to get better at organizing my time.

Int: OK. So what are you going to do about that?

Dan: Well, I’m going to try to prioritize more, to deal with the things that are really important. I’m also going to set myself more realistic deadlines.

Int: Good, OK, that sounds sensible.

Ex. 1. Imagine you are at such a meeting discussing you performance at the Master’s courses. Answer the following questions. Add your own questions and answer them.

a) What’s your assessment? How are you getting on with your studies and research?

b) Is there anything you are particularly pleased with?

c) Are there any aspects where you think there is room for improvement?

d) What are you going to do about this problem?

Ex. 2. Now read the next part of the interview above. Do you agree with Dan?

Int: Right. Could you describe your best manager?

Dan: Erm, a woman I worked with in Spain, who enjoyed her job, enjoyed life; we had a good time at work, erm, and most of all she allowed me to get on with it, make my mistakes – it wasn’t the end of the world, and I learnt a lot from it.

Ex. 3. Choose the adjectives from the list below which best describe Dan’s ideal manager.

How would you like your manager to be?

supportive

hands-off

available

a good teacher

understanding

inspirational

demanding

creative

friendly

open-minded

Ex. 4. «Managers have to learn how to be teachers, counsellors and friends» Charles Handy, management specialist. Work in pairs to discuss these questions.

a) Do you agree with Handy’s view?

b) What is the main role of managers in companies in our country?

c) How much control should employeés have over their own work?

d) How much should the manager control what the employee does?

Ex. 5. What tense or grammar structure will you use speaking about:

Ex. 6. Work in pairs. Juan, Aleka and Chan each have a different objective. They write a list of action points to meet their objectives. Decide which points belong to which person.

Objectives

Action points

Now think of three objectives which are important to you and write an action plan to reach each objective. Compare your objectives and action plan with your partner.

Ex. 7. Comment on the following saying:

«The Spanish live to work and the British work to live. The British live to work and the Spanish work to live»

What about the Russians?

Ex. 8. Scan part of an interview for a job. Are people in our country similar to the Spanish in the workplace culture? Do you agree with Peter?

Int: OK. I know you’ve worked in Spain and Britain. Are there any differences between the workplace culture in the two countries?

Peter: Mmm, it was a while, a few years ago that I was in Spain, and I think that Britain and Spain have probably become more similar, but the thing I noticed most was that the Spanish work in order to enjoy their lives far more so than they do in Britain.

Ex. 9. Write your objectives and your action plan for getting a better job or promotion. Think about:

Unit III

Gender Problems at Work

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

a) Do you think men and women have different styles in their work place?

b) If you were to work in a team would you prefer to work with men or women?

c) Do you think women are good bosses? Top managers?

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Look at the cartoons and say which figures you think represent men and which represent women?

confrontational, competitive

personal

achievement

comes first share credit for success

forceful, self-protective, challenging, direct

collaborative in control

talk about personal matters welcome contributions

hysterical

Ex. 2. Below are the titles to newspaper articles. What might the articles be about? What modal verbs will you use to express supposition?

a) Women-bosses are endangered species.

b) Do you hate female bosses?

c) Women: still lonely at the top?

d) More women on top corporate jobs.

e) Female bosses 10% more likely to be fired than men.

Focus on reading I

Ex. 1. Skim the first paragraph and identify the main topic of the passage.

Ex. 2. The text has eight main sub-sections. Scan the text and match the cartoons in exercise 1 to the sections.

Ex. 3. Skim the headings to the reading passages and see if they match the contents of the sub-sections.

Men and women do things differently. There are, of course, exceptions to every generalisation, including this one. Cristina Stuart is a managing director of Speakeasy Training, a consultancy that runs courses for men and women working together. Here she describes a few key differences between the sexes in the workplace.

Working together

A. The male approach to business is competitive, direct and confrontational. The end justifies the means. Personal status and a focus on the individual are important.

The female method is collaborative. Collective action and responsibility are more important than personal achievement. Lateral thinking, as well as goodwill and the well-being of the individual, are also of great importance.

Tackling problems

B. The male approach is to go to the heart of the problem, without taking into account secondary considerations. The female preference is to look at various options.

Body language

C. Male body language tends to be challenging. Female body language tends towards self-protection. A stereotypical female pose is sitting cross-legged; the male sits with legs apart to give an impression that he is in control. Male behaviour can include forceful gestures for example banging a fist on the desk for effect. The female style does not usually include aggressive gestures.

Language

D. The male way of speaking does not encourage discussion. Women tend to welcome others' opinions and contributions more.

Conversation

E. Men like to talk about their personal experiences and achievements or discuss 'masculine' topics such as cars or sport. Women tend to talk about staff problems and personal matters.

Meetings

F. If a woman does not copy the male confrontational style, she is often ignored.

Self-promotion

G. Men find it easy to tell others about their successes. Women tend to share or pass on the credit for a success.

Humour

H. Men's humour can be cruel, a man's joke usually has a victim. Female humour is less hurtful. A woman often jokes against herself.

Caveat

Many men have a female style of working. Equally many women have a male approach. As Ms Stuart says many of the current management theorems – flatter organizations, empowerment, managing by consensus have a female style to them.

Ex. 4. According to the text, which of these phrases are typically used by men and which of them by women?

Example:

‘It’s very simple. The point is …’

Men. Because ‘the male approach is to go to the heart of the matter.’

a) ‘But we also need to take account of …’

b) ‘You look worried. What do you think about the new plan?’

c) ‘That’s rubbish!’

d) ‘I built the department from nothing.’

e) ‘Thanks for your kind words, but this really was a team effort.’

f) ‘It was so funny. He looked ridiculous!’

Ex. 5. Read the text carefully. Which sub-sections might contain the following phrases as illustrations of the main idea of each paragraph?

a) “Have you heard about Steve? He is going to divorce his wife!”

b) “Let’s get straight down to business. Don’t beat about the bush!”

c) “I’d rather work in a team with a supportive manager.”

d) “The deadline is tomorrow!”

e) “Despite his tough image the boss is quite sentimental.”

f) “It is disappointing that we could not make this import contract but that’s life!”

g) “I hate bitching about my colleagues but … .”

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Complete the following table with the correct parts of speech.

Verb

Noun

Adjective

to compete (with)

to confront

collaboration

controllable

encouragement

to achieve

Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences using one of the words from the table above.

a) It was a great to win the company's prize for excellence.

b) This is a really difficult job at times. I'd like a bit of … from my boss occasionally.

c) I hate having meetings with Alan. He's always aggressive and … .

d) I don't like working on my own, I need other people to with.

e) It's impossible to events, but you can influence them.

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Which words and word combinations in the text are used to describe men and women at work? Find them and put them in the columns below. Add the words from the table below where appropriate.

men women

competitive collaborative

ambitious

intuitive

stubborn

bossy

practical

sympathetic

emotional

creative

straightforward

reliable

fussy

trustworthy

Ex. 4. Work out the meaning of these phrases from the context. Can you give any examples of lateral thinking? Is it good for a researcher to possess it?

a) Banging a fist on the table.

b) The end justifies the means.

c) Lateral thinking.

d) Flatter organizations.

e) Managing by consensus.

Word partners

Ex. 5. Which adjectives and nouns given below would you combine to form collocations?

Nouns

Adjectives

achievement

action

experience,

male

training

competitive

gesture

approach

management

collaborative

personal

collective,

consultancy

achievement

matters

forceful

current

aggressive

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Work in groups to discuss the following questions.

a) What are the styles of male and female managers in companies in your country? Are they similar to the ones outlined in the text?

b) Do you think there is a difference in style of management between men and women due to character traits? Can you give any examples?

c) Do you know any men who have a ‘female’ style of working? Or women who have a ‘male’ style of working?

d) Do you find it easier to work with men or women? Why?

e) How do you feel about the woman being the boss and the man being the secretary?

f) What about men staying at home and women going to work?

Ex. 2. Choose a spokesperson in the group to make a presentation to the whole class, summarizing the opinions in the group. Make use of some phrases given below in the Useful language box.

Useful language: Clauses of contrast

Clauses of contrast give information which is surprising when compared to the main clause.

a) Men and women have different styles but both can adopt the other gender’s way of working.

b) Although the majority of employees in the company are women, men hold most of the senior management posts.

c) It is sometimes dangerous to generalize, however we can note some specific differences between men and women’s styles.

Ex. 3. Look at the graph below and comment on it make use of some phrases from the Useful language boxes: Rise and fall and Clauses of Contrast.

Useful language: Rise and fall

Nouns

Verbs

dramatic increase in

steady decrease

constant rise in

sharp fall in

general improvement

deterioration in

growth of

decline in

strengthening

weakening

expansion

contraction

widening of the gap between

narrowing of the gap between

marked progress

drop in

upward trend in terms of

downward trend in terms

increase

decrease

rise

fall

improve

drop

deteriorate

grow

relax

raise

expand

contract

decline

lower

weaken

run down

extend

widen

introduce

enlarge

broaden

Focus on reading II

Ex. 1. Scan the text below and match the paragraphs to the following slogans on war posters. Are they addressed to men or women?

a) Queen Mary’s army Auxiliary Corps for women. Enroll today!

b) All the workers from this factory are in trenches. The factory needs you!

c) Women of Britain! Say Go to your men!

Did women keep the home fires burning?

In the past, wars produced a lot of propaganda in the form of leaflets, posters and even songs. In 1914 there was a popular English song called ‘Keep the Home Fires Burning’. The words said women should not to cry as they watched the men leave to go to war and they should stay positive at home waiting for the soldiers to return. This was in line with the traditional image of passive women in the home, supporting their husbands by looking after the house and children. Posters also presented women and children as needing protection from the dangers of war. The posters directed men to take up their traditional roles of protecting the weaker sex by joining the army.

Poster A

Propaganda aimed at women contained quite different images. Before the War, most women worked in the textiles industry or in teaching or domestic work. They were not expected or encouraged to work in more ‘male’ roles. With the new absence of men in the workforce, however, women were now required to do much of the work previously done by men. Organizations were set up to recruit women in areas such as transport and communications which would support the army both at home and abroad.

Poster B

In addition to this, there was a whole new area of work which desperately needed recruits. This was the munitions factories, where the supplies such as chemicals and explosives made to support the war effort were produced. Posters designed to encourage women in their new roles were bright and cheerful and the women portrayed in them were attractive and healthy, pleased to be ‘doing their bit’ for their country.

Poster C

Ex. 2. Read the text carefully and mark these sentences as true or false.

a) The song ‘Keep the Home Fires Burning’ was produced to encourage women to join the army.

b) Before 1914, many women worked in clothing factories and schools.

c) In the War, women were asked to do men’s jobs.

d) The women in the munitions factories helped the War by making food supplies.

Ex. 3. Work out the meaning of these phrases from the context. Use them in sentences of your own.

a) The weaker sex b) The war effort c) Doing their bit

Ex. 4. Speculating about the past.

What do you think the women’s response to the propaganda posters was? What do you think the reality was like? Add your sentences to the ones below using modal verbs + have + Past Participle.

a) They must have wanted to enroll straight away.

b) No, it must have been awful. They must have been so scared.

c) They might have been excited.

Ex. 5. You are going to read about some experiences of women in the First World War. Did they match the portrayal in the propaganda? Did they match your ideas about the reality of women’s lives in the War? Pick out the words which describe the hardships of war.

“I enrolled in the army and went to the camp with another girl, Richardson. I wrote my name down for work as a storekeeper, but when I went to the camp there weren’t any jobs in the stores. Richardson got a job in the pharmacy so she was OK, but for me it was terrible. The only jobs available were digging the toilets for the camp. It was hard and dirty work. I hated it. It wasn’t what I joined the army for – to dig toilets! I complained, but we were told we were in the army and in the army you do as you are told and don’t ask questions!” – Katherine

“After a long day at the munitions factory, we got home and immediately had a bath to wash away the chemicals. The chemicals on our skin changed the water colour to blood red, which was scary. Some of the sulphur got deep inside so our skin actually became yellow, and this didn’t wash off. My toenails were bright yellow for 12 months after the War. Horrible! There were worse things though. Some of the chemicals, like mercury, didn’t have a colour so you couldn’t see them. They were the most dangerous. I got mercury poisoning and didn’t even find out until after the War!” – Mrs Hall

Ex. 6. Work in pairs to answer the following questions. Do you think these women’s ideas about their role in the war changed after they started working? Make some sentences using modal verbs.

Example: She must have felt disappointed when she arrived at the camp.

a) Do you think these women’s lives were different when the War finished?

b) What do you think about women being called ‘the weaker sex’?

c) What do you think of women serving in the army? Women colonels?

Unit IV

Volunteering

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the following questions.

a) Have you ever done any voluntary job?

b) If so, what did you do?

c) If not, would you like to?

d) What is your attitude to volunteering as a social phenomenon?

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Bizarre jobs for volunteers.

There are some very strange jobs you can do if you want to be a volunteer in Britain. Read these job descriptions and decide which ones you would like to try!

a) Toad warden – help toads cross the road when they migrate for the annual breeding season.

b) Tandem bike rider – be the front rider on a tandem bike so blind people can enjoy cycling.

c) Pet carer – look after pets when elderly owners go into hospital.

d) Festival volunteer – work on a charity stall at a music festival – and get a free ticket.

e) Neighbour dispute mediator – work with communities to resolve local clashes.

f) Lifeboat crew member – go out on emergency rescues as well as giving training sessions on using boats.

g) Radio producer – to make programmes for community radio station.

h) Death row pen pal – make friends with people facing the death penalty in the U.S.

i) Beach watcher – organize cleaning the beaches and do beach surveys.

g) Emergency relief worker – support rescue workers and evacuees in the UK in rest centres.

k) Support worker for prisoners’ families – offer support to families of people in prison.

l) Kids theatre volunteer – work with children to do theatre plays and musical productions.

m) Resuscitation trainer – teach basic life support skills in community centres and schools.

n) Green gym environmental volunteer – get fit through conservation activities like planting trees or improving footpaths.

Ex. 2. Choose a job from the ones above. Suppose you detest doing it but you can’t give it up right now, complain about it to a sympathetic friend.

Useful language: Making Complaints. Speaking about Dislikes.

I regret __ -ing

I hate to complain but you see …

It was not as bad at the beginning but then, you see …

My pet hate is …

I wish I had not …

I loath __ -ing

I do not feel at my best

I am not good at __-ing

I feel I’m treated like dirt

It is ridiculous that I should …

I have tried hard to ditch negative thoughts, but …

I am desperately trying to keep my head above water

Ex. 3. Choose one job you would enjoy doing as a volunteer. Share your feelings.

Useful language: Speaking about likes

I enjoy __ -ing

I am fond of __ -ing

I am awfully keen on .

I appreciate

I adore __ -ing

I love __ -ing

It raises my self-esteem.

I feel at my best when … .

Focus on reading

Ex. 1. Skim the text and match the following phrases with the paragraphs in the text (A, B, C).

a) I’ve met my husband doing volunteering.

b) There are even pensioners working in our Centre!

c) I enjoy working with little kids. They are awesome!

d) I am proud of the fact that I help the disabled.

e) Just imagine! I am going to be sent to Lebanon on a special mission!

f) It is amazing! I’ve lost 5 kg in a month!

g) I do admire her! She is so kind to elderly people!

Ex. 2. Scan the text and pick out the motivations for volunteering which are not mentioned in the text.

a) To give up time.

b) To win a bid.

c) What’s in it for me?

d) To squeeze in.

e) To develop self-respect.

f) A sense of altruism.

g) This selfish age.

h) Self-awareness.

i) A life partner.

j) Speed dating.

k) To develop communication skills.

Volunteering – for love?

Working as a volunteer can help you to meet new friends or even find romance in unexpected circumstances.

A. Benefit the community. Doing some form of voluntary work has never been more popular with British people. Over 20 million people were engaged in voluntary activities in 2013. Volunteering means giving up time to do work of benefit to the community. It can be based in the UK or overseas. Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) has long recruited people in the UK to fulfil professional roles in developing countries. Volunteering can take many forms, from working with children with learning difficulties, in an animal hospital, or planting trees. When London won its bid to host the 2012 Olympics, up to 70,000 volunteers were needed to help ensure the games were a success.

B. What’s in it for me? Volunteers can be anyone of any age. Students and full-time workers often manage to squeeze in some volunteer work. But what motivates volunteers? Some do it out of a sense of altruism while others find they have free time available. But in this selfish age more people are asking what they can get out of it. Some mention self-awareness. As Pukul, 28, who works in communications in Manchester, says, ‘you’re no longer doing it for yourself but for someone else’. Many people mention the opportunity to get to know people they would not normally meet.

C. Do you come here often? A relatively new phenomenon is the hope of meeting new friends or even a life partner through volunteering. In a recent survey 20% of 18-24 year-olds and 8% of over-65s said their love lives had improved since they began volunteering. ‘Volunteering is what speed-dating promises but never fulfils – a way of seeing a lot of truth about someone you’ve just met in a short a time as possible,’ says Mukta Das. The same poll found that nearly half of volunteers enjoyed improved health and fitness, a quarter had lost weight – especially those working with children or doing conservation projects – and two-thirds felt less stressed. So, it seems volunteering may improve your life – you may even find the person of your dreams.

Ex. 3. Read the text carefully and comment on its heading.

Which paragraph of the text does the heading cover? Offer a more formal heading.

Ex. 4. Categorize the following words and word combinations into two groups: volunteer happy (A) or unhappy (B).

A B

...

Focus on vocabulary

Word building

Ex. 1. Add appropriate suffixes to the following nouns to form adjectives.

-ful, -ial, -ic, -able, -ive, -al

altruism

help

conservation

romance

circumstance

stress

benefit

communication

support

meaning

management

environment

Ex. 2. Work in pairs to describe someone you know well using adjectives from exercise 1.

Ex. 3. Use vocabulary from exercise 1 to complete the sentences below.

a) They would never have been able to win the prize without the ... efforts of their firm.

b) His ... attitude to people is amazing. He considers the happiness of others before his own.

c) He was so ... in arranging the conference.

d) This famous novel is a ... story of love and devotion.

e) She is totally ... and still thinks that a woman’s place is in the home.

f) A ... person is eagerly willing to talk or give information.

g) He was promoted to this post because of his ... skills.

h) The holiday has had a ... effect on him.

i) When she asked about the result of the exam the teacher gave her a ... smile.

j) Her description of the method under consideration is so ...., it contains all the details.

k) Emotionally ... situations can lead to depression.

Word meaning

Ex. 4. Work out the meaning of the underline expressions from the context. Use them in sentences of your own.

Word partners

Ex. 5. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B.

A

B

a) romance

1) to find a new member to a group or organization

b) benefit

2) to provide smb with a reason for doing smth

c) to recruit

3) consideration of the good of others before one’s own

d) to motivate

4) concerned with one’s own advantage

e) altruism

5) a story of love

f) selfish

6) a fact or event influencing another event, person, etc.

g) poll

7) questioning people to find out general opinion

h) circumstance

8) advantage, good effect

Ex. 6. Fill in the words from the exercise above in the following sentences.

a) Our vital aim now is … new members to our party.

b) How is his little with Julia going?

c) He has had the ... of a first-class education.

d) He is thinking only about his own, the notion of …. is alien to him.

e) He was ... only by the wish to help me and expected nothing in return.

f) Under nowill there be wage reduction while I am head of the department.

g) The results of the ... will not be known until midnight.

h) He is utterly devoid of altruism, without care for others he is so ... .

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the following questions. Use the words from the block Focus on vocabulary.

a) Do you have any organizations that are similar to VSO in your country?

b) Why do young people usually decide to volunteer?

c) Do you think that volunteering is a good way to meet people? Why? Why not?

d) Do you agree that working as a volunteer can help you to keep fit?

e) If you were a volunteer what motivation might your have?

Ex. 2. Think of a volunteer job you might take or choose one from the list in exercise 1 (Focus on speaking I). Describe your activities as a volunteer. You can start with «I come to ...». Express your emotions using words and phrases from the block Focus on vocabulary and the Useful Language boxes.

Ex. 3. Scan the text below. A volunteer-tutor describes his plans. Comment on the text information. Would you like to take such a job?

This afternoon I will have my introduction to and first meeting with my first refugee ESL student, Abdi, a 40-year-old Somali man. Although Abdi has been in the country for 7 years, he has been unable to attend the ESL classes offered at Emily Griffith Opportunity School due to treatment for severe medical conditions, including cardiac and orthopedic surgery. He has had one in-home volunteer-tutor to date. I will be his second. We will meet at least twice weekly. The volunteer coordinator will introduce us and we will assess his current fluency level. Abdi and I are looking forward to working together.

Ex. 4. On the part of this volunteer-tutor describe the progress you have made after a month of studies. What tense will you use?

Unit V

I love my job. And I hate it!

Lead-in

Ex. 1. Look at the following list of jobs. Work with your partner to sort them out into categories in any way you like. A possible grouping is: doctor, nurse, ambulance. All logical answers are acceptable.

Teacher

Journalist

Nurse

Waitress

Researcher

Ambulance Driver

Doctor

Hairdresser

Soldier

Spy

Marketing manager

Bee-keeper

Model

Chemical engineer

Chef

Pilot

Managing Director

Property investor

Politician

Policeman/woman

Detective

In your opinion, what are the best and the worst jobs from the list?

Ex. 2. Work in pairs to answer the questions.

Do you know anybody who….

a) Is applying for a job? What kind of job?

b) Has just retired? How old is he/she?

c) Has been promoted recently? What to?

d) Does a lot of overtime? Why?

e) Was sacked from his/her job? Why?

f) Is self-employed? What does he/she do?

g) Is doing a temporary job? What?

h) Has a part-time job? What hours does he/she work?

Focus on speaking I

Ex. 1. Work in pairs to answer the following questions.

a) In your opinion, which of the people in the list below should be paid most?

b) Which should be paid least?

c) Should any of the others be better paid, or worse paid, than they are?

d) Were are you surprised by this information?

In Japan, teachers earn far less than factory workers.

In Denmark, teachers are among the best-paid workers.

A New York dustman makes three times as much as an Indian army general.

A German bus driver gets twice the pay of a British bus driver.

In China, university professors earn as much as government ministers.

Chinese journalists are the worst-paid journalists in the world.

Ex. 2. Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

a) In your country, which of the following people are well paid?

b) Which ones earn average wages?

c) Which ones are badly paid?

Bus driver, company director, dustman, factory worker, farm worker, army general. government minister, nurse, primary-school teacher, housewife university professor, banker, policeman.

Useful language: speaking about money

He’s a multi-millionaire.

She inherited millions (an oil-heiress).

They won a fortune.

She's got more money than sense.

They're made of money.

He's a very wealthy businessman.

She's extremely well-off.

You're looking very prosperous.

They say we're living in an affluent society.

He's comfortably off.

I'm a bit hard up at the moment, actually.

I’m down to my last ten p.

He's broke.

They're on the breadline.

I haven't got a penny to my name.

I'm afraid we're bankrupt, gentlemen.

Now I know what it's like to be poverty-stricken.

I'm running into debt.

I owe money everywhere.

I'm heavily in debt.

I'm a few thousand in the red.

I'm up to my ears in debt.

I wonder if it's true that crime doesn't pay!

Ex. 3. Rearrange the following sentences in the logical order. Then add one or two sentences to each one explaining reasons or giving consequences. Use connectors. Then tell the story from memory.

A. But he was happy because he had a good salary and a company car.

В. He applied for a job with a food company, and sent in his CV.

С. Не was sacked. Jake was unemployed again...

D. After six months he got promoted.

E. Jake was unemployed and was looking for a job.

F. He had to work very hard and do overtime.

G. But then he had an argument with his boss.

H. He had an interview, and he got the job.

Useful language: Connectors

a) At first …

b) Then …

c) After that

d) Finally …

e) However …

f) In addition …

g) As a result

Ex. 4. Make sentences using Conditional III (Unreal Past) about Jake (exercise 3).

Example:

If he had not had an argument with his boss he would not have been sacked.

Ex. 5. Discuss the following problems with your partner

a) What are the top 5 and bottom 5 jobs in your country?

b) What are the most important things about a job? Is it money? People? The hours you work?

c) What is the perfect or dream job for you?

d) If you were a boss, what might your reasons for sacking an employee be?

Focus on reading I

Ex. 1. Skim the text and think of a proper title to it.

Ex. 2. The first two paragraphs of the text below start with recommendations for those who do not like their job. Scan the text and give your recommendations for paragraphs C-H. Then compare your options with the ones offered in the article (The answers are given after the text).

Your job makes you feel bad about yourself and about your life? I think you should quit it. Doing something that makes you unhappy will not make your life any better. Choose something you like to do and I can guarantee you that you will become so much happier.

Kerry Hannon, Contributor

A story caught my attention on the NBC Nightly News last night. It was about Clockwork Active Media, a Minneapolis, digital strategy agency and its 75 employees say they love, love, love to work.

Clockwork staffers can come in and leave any time and their vacation time is unlimited as long as they get their work done. Ice-cold beer is always on tap and the employees can bring in their kids whenever they want, "WE LOVE MONDAYS," is emblazoned across the company's home page and "it's true," says CEO Nancy Lyons.

Great for them. Most employees, however, aren't so lucky. Just four in 10 are highly engaged, according to the Towers Watson 2014 Global Workforce Study. Little wonder that Americans are quitting their jobs at the fastest pace since early 2008, according to a U.S. Labor Department survey released yesterday.

But I believe there are a few ways you can fall in love with your job even if you don't like it right now.

When I hear people whining about their jobs or their boss I want to shout: suck it up! Do something about it. Stop being a victim. If you can make it work where you are right now, you'll save yourself a lot of trouble.

Here are 10 ways to do it:

A. Focus on what you like about your work and ramp it up. This will give you the strength to tackle the tough parts. Consider things like your соworkers, your (perhaps only occasionally) stimulating assignments, opportunities for learning, the respect you engender and the perks – whether that's cold beer or something else).

1

B. Make a change – even a small one. Boredom is often at the root of unhappiness at work. So take a single step toward modifying what's getting you down. Challenge yourself to look for one area that would give you more joy at work and then make it happen. If you persistently add worth to what you bring to the job, chances are your boss will notice and reward you for it. One way to do this: sign up for continuing education or professional development programs offered by your employer. When you acquire knowledge, you notice the world around you. Your mind turns on.

C. When people feel low on energy, often it's because they're not clearing out as they go. Their inbox is overflowing. Their desk is a disaster. Their file drawers are jammed. Decluttering is liberating and empowering. Says career coach Beverly Jones: "You are saying, 'This is valuable, this is not.' It's a physical, practical way to engage in making decisions about your life and what you want to do with it." Getting rid of stuff brings a new perspective, she adds.

D. I call mine "going to my happy place." I close my eyes and visualize a green field in the Virginia countryside with a sweeping view of the Blue Ridge Mountains. I go there in my head and sit. It calms me down, I feel peaceful and my attitude shifts.

2

E. Helping out at a nonprofit gets you out of your own head and that swamps of negativity and lets you gain perspective on others' needs. When the volunteer effort is initiated by your employer, it builds relationships with co-workers (and perhaps your boss).

F. If you become complacent about trends, you'll get left behind. Then, when new and interesting opportunities do arise at work, you might not be nimble enough to grab them.

3

Make a practice of reading trade publications. And set up a Google Alert to notify you about the latest news in your industry. Being in the know can inspire you to think of projects you might be able to nominate yourself for at work or start on your own.

G. Dissect your current position to pinpoint a new responsibility you can add that will refresh your focus and maybe even scare you a bit. Then throw your name into the hat. Say “yes” to new assignments. The adrenaline will charge you up and when you succeed, the rewards will be internal and external.

H. For example, if you have a musical bent form a band with a group of coworkers to play music or start an a cappella group.

Answers Focus on reading I/ex. 2

C

Declutter your office.

D

Find a positive image to inspire you and help you cope with a job.

E

Volunteer — either through work or on the side.

F

Get up to speed on your field.

G

Raise your hand and ask for new duties.

H

Explore finding joy around the edges

Ex. 3. The passage below is taken from the text above. Read the text carefully and decide where it fits – 1, 2 or 3?

If you want a more concrete focal point, tape a picture of a special image on your office wall, away from your computer and phone. That way, you'll have to turn to look directly at it, which can be transporting. The very action of directing your attention away from your work opens up the door in your day for a respite, a restart, and a new view. It's reviving and centering at the same time.

Ex. 4. What do the following pronouns refer to in the text?

A … ramp it up.

B … reward you for it.

C ... to do with it.

D … it calms me down.

E … and that swamps.

F ... it builds relationships.

G ... to grab them.

Focus on vocabulary I

Word building

Ex 1. Complete the following table with the correct part of speech.

verb

noun

adjective

to vacate

digit

power

to bore

wonderful

trouble

persistent

nominee

toughee

acquisitive

Ex 2. Add prefixes to the following adjectives to form adjectives with a negative meaning. Note that some of them characterize people who are not happy with their jobs.

-un- ir- non- dis- in-

happy

interested

continuous

practical

valuable

lucky

responsible

profitable

sociable

Word meaning

Ex. 3. Explain the expressions underlined in the text in your own words. Sort them out into those conveying a positive (+) or a negative (-) meaning. Add the others from the text.

+

to challenge yourself

to whine about

Ex. 4. Read the following text and try to put in the missing words and expressions.

Alan is … commercial traveller. He works for a firm … manufactures and sells different kinds of industrial glue. He … most of his time travelling, visiting customers and possible customers in various … of the country.

Alan doesn't … his job much, and he is unhappy for several reasons. First of all, he ... living out of suitcases. When he was younger he … the travelling, but now he is tired of … from one hotel room to another, spending his life visiting factories in small industrial towns. And he doesn't enjoy with the people he meets. He gets on well enough with them, but he doesn't they have very much in common. Alan's interested in literature and politics. Most of the managers he meets just seem to be in talking about work and golf. Alan doesn't find glue very interesting in fact, he would be … if he nevera tube of glue again in his whole life.

Although the … and the conditions are good, and his firm treats him well, Alan would very much like to … his job. He to stay in one place and see more of his … and children. Unfortunately he doesn't have much choice; it isn't easy to find these days, and Alan is fortunate to be employed. Still, he can't wait to retire. He knows he is lucky in many, but sometimes he … so unhappy that he wants to scream.

Ex. 5. Pick out the key words from the following passages and guess the job each person does.

A. I'm a night person. I love the hours, you know? I like going to work at around six at night and then getting home at two or three in the morning. I like being out around people, you know, talking to them, listening to their problems. Last week one of the regulars came in and asked for a Ramos gin fizz. He didn't think I knew how to make it. Hah! But I know how to make every drink in the book. Although some of the nights when I go in I just don't feel like dealing with all the noise.

B. If I had to sit behind a desk all day, I’d go crazy! I'm really glad I have a job where I can keep moving, you know? My favorite part is picking out the music – I use new music for every ten-week session. For my last class I always use the Beatles – it's a great beat to move to, and everybody loves them. I like to sort of educate people about their bodies, and show them, how to do the exercises and movements safely.

C. What do I like about my job? Money. M-O-N-E-Y. No, I like the creativity, and I like my studio. All my tools are like toys to me – you know, my watercolors, pen and inks, colored pencils, drafting table – I love playing with them. And I have lots of different kinds of clients – I do magazines, book covers, album covers, newspaper articles – so there's lots of variety, which I like.

D. Well, I'll tell you. At first, it was fun, because there was so much to learn, and working with figures and money was interesting. But after about two years the thrill was gone, and now it's very routine. I like it when we're making money, though, because I get to see all of my efforts rewarded.

Word partners

Ex. 6. Below is the list of some jobs. Can you match them with things they work with?

Jobs

Things

1) Clergy

a) Engines

2) Chefs

b) Bathrooms

3) Beauticians

c) Houses

4) Plumbers

d) Food

5) Mechanics

f) Family problems

6) Social workers

g) The bible

7) Architects

h) New buildings

8) Estate agents

i) Make up

Ex. 7 Fill in the missing prepositions in the sentences below.

a) I feel bad my lagging behind the schedule.

b) Lots of people quit their jobs…the fastest rate.

c) Mastering your professional skills is a good way to fall love with your job.

d) Low salary is often the root of the problems … work.

e) The routine of the job is getting me … .

f) You could sign … … some courses to master new skills.

g) When you feel low energy switch … to something else directing your attention away from work

h) I am engaged … making decisions as I am a project manager.

i) I like being the know … new trends.

j) Always say «yes» … inspiring challenges.

Focus on speaking II

Ex. 1. Do you agree with the recommendations given in the text above.

Ex. 2. Problems at work are often caused by personal relations. Work in pairs. Choose as a partner someone you know fairly well or someone whose judgement you trust. First, work through the questions by yourself. Answer the questions twice, once about yourself and once about your partner. When both you and your partner have finished, compare your results.

Mutual impressions at work

a) How would the people you work with describe your role in the group?

b) How would you describe your attitude to your work?

c) What is the atmosphere you create in a team.

d) What sort of a boss would you make?

e) How do you treat your superiors?

Answer the questions:

a) Where you surprised by the results?

b) What were the main differences between you and your partner?

c) Is such kind of test useful?

d) Which questions did you find most revealing?

Ex. 3. Here are some comments made by two people at various times in their working life-when they were 16, 26, 36, 46 and 56. Unfortunately, they have become mixed up. Read them and try to decide at which age each was spoken. Notice how many feelings, desires, hopes and fears are expressed. Which paragraph do you identify with most? Which person do you envy less, feel more sorry for?

A. I'd love to do something like teaching for a while, as a change from book-keeping. Teaching English to foreign students appeals to me; I really like the sound of it. For two pins, I'd leave James, and James and try a summer course at the Sunshine School of English just down the road. To be quite honest, I just don't feel like going into the office today or ever again. I’m in the mood for something completely different.

B. I’d rather not think about how many jobs I've had. I used to dream of making my way up to the top of some firm or other – a firm of accountants, perhaps. Instead, I’ve settled for odd jobs here and there, aimed for posts they didn't even consider me for, compromised left right and centre and made do with what came my way. At times I would have given my right arm for a comfortable job, regular salary, some sort of prospects. And each time I accepted second or third best. I do so yearn for a second chance. Silly, isn't it?

C. I suppose I'm resigned to being an accountant with J, and J until I'm 65. I know it's too late to have regrets, but I do wish I had tried harder to make the break. I had every intention of doing so. There seemed to be so many options open once, so many alternatives to pick from, so many possibilities from which to choose. I recall how I flirted with journalism, how I was once quite committed to becoming a social worker, how I turned my back on a teaching career. I hate to admit it, but I fear it's true. I’m longing for my retirement

D. Well, I’ve made a resolution to leave the old firm within the next eighteen months. I'm really looking forward to a change. I couldn't face going on in accountancy until I retire. I feel inclined to try publishing; I've got my eye on a company just down the road. I have half a mind to write to them today.

E. I didn't really plan to get into accountancy. I'm not sure I ever really wanted to work in the world of business, but there it is, here I am. I suppose I was just drawn to it somehow, attracted to it like a magnet. I’m going to give it a few more years and then change. I rather like the idea of being a journalist; there is a newspaper office just down the road.

Ex. 4. Compress the information in each forming one sentence.

Ex. 5. Below is an advertisement offering help and support to those who hate going to work. Use your imagination and say what it might offer. Do you think that people like psychologists and job coaches can cope with such problems?

I want you to know today that if anything like that is happening in your life it does not have to keep happening. We can help you heal the source of that and for your work to be something that is a joy, that you look forward to, or at least something that is completely fine and you don’t have to have big recovery time or it doesn’t stress you. You don’t feel that anxiety, anger, frustration, irritation, dread, all of that. The Relationship Codes can help you find the source of that and fix that source, conscious or unconscious. I hope you have a wonderful, blessed day. We would be delighted to help you love what you do.

Ex. 6. Here are some pieces of advice to a person who hates his job. He is in two mind, whether to stay or to quit. Which pieces of advice seem the most reasonable?

Apple74

November 5th, 2014 9:43am

If you have a better offer in hand or a better safety plan you can quit when you feel like. Make sure you won't suffer from financial instability etc for sometime. Even when you are leaving the current job, don't do it in bad taste. Try maintaining cordial relationship with your current colleagues and employers.

December 30th, 2015 9:59am

Performing a job that you dislike is draining. Mentally, emotionally and sometimes even physically. That isn't something that is sustainable long term if you want to be healthy and happy. I have worked at several jobs that I didn't particularly like but they fit my needs at the time. If you actually have no other options, and you would harm yourself by quitting, then I would not recommend quitting. I would recommend staying and also working toward the goal of acquiring whatever you need to get a job that you like. If you don't have to work and you have other options, go for the job of your dreams.

Listener Jon

August 14th. 2015 7:39pm

It depends! Just because you don't like a job, doesn't mean that it's definitely time to abandon ship. Do you have other reasons to keep it? (Family, income, debt, etc) Do you have another job lined up? Do you have marketable skills that you can use to find other work soon? That way, you can be more 'choosy', and you aren't in a rush to have to pay bills, etc.

Katheryn

July 29th, 2015 12:46pm

What you should do is up to you! It takes courage to leave any job and its security. Try to ask yourself 'What would I do with my time if money was no object?' and then do what you think of.

October 28th, 2014 7:21pm

Do you need income? It may not make sense to quit immediately, but it's never a bad idea to explore other options. Some jobs are horrible but help get you to a future goal. If this is the case for you, figure out ways to focus on why you chose this path.

Ex. 7. Change the sentences below, if necessary, to reflect your opinion.

a) If you are given a sack at short notice it is not a good idea to talk things out with your boss.

b) If one is denied a promotion he should quit the job.

c) If you were a project manager you would not reprimand people in public.

d) Financial instability should not discourage one from mastering professional skills.

Ex. 8. Speak of a job you like (liked) or hate (hated) using key words and expressions from the text in Focus on reading and exercises from Focus on speaking II.