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Пособие составлено кафедрой Английского языка БГУ для подготовки к кандидатскому экзамену.
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PART 1

Unit I

Pre-reading tasks

1. Look through the key words and expressions and guess what this text is about:

smoking to see no evil tobacco

definite link to take timid measures to tax

bronchial troubles cigarette advertising harmful

lung cancer to ban short-sighted policy

governments cancer research

2. Think of and write down 5 questions the answers to which this text might contain.

3. Now look through the text to see:

a) if your guess about the contents of the text was correct;

b) what questions can be answered. (Answer these questions).

1. If you smoke and you don't believe that there is a definite link between smoking and bronchial troubles, heart disease and lung cancer, then you are certainly deceiving yourself. Let us say that you are suffering from a bad case of wishful thinking. Whenever the subject of smoking and health is raised, the governments of most countries hear no evil, see no evil and smell no evil. Admittedly, a few governments have taken timid measures. In Britain, for instance, cigarette advertising has been banned on television. The conscience of the nation is appeased, while the population continues to puff its way to a smoky, cancerous death. You don't have to look very far to find out why the official reactions to medical findings have been so lukewarm. The answer is simply money.

2. Tobacco is a wonderful commodity to tax. It's almost like a tax on our daily bread. In tax revenue alone the government of Britain collects enough from smokers for its entire educational facilities. So while the authorities point out ever so discreetly that smoking may, conceivably, be harmful, it does not shout too loudly about it. This is surely the most short-sighted policy you could imagine. While money is eagerly collected in vast sums with one hand, it is paid out in increasingly vaster sums with the other. Enormous amounts are spent on cancer research and on efforts to cure people suffering from the disease. Countless valuable lives are lost. In the long run, there is no doubt that everybody would be much better-off if smoking were banned altogether.

3. Of course, we are not ready for such drastic actions. But if the governments of the world were honestly concerned about the welfare of their people, do you think they'd conduct aggressive anti-smoking campaign? Far from it! The tobacco industry is allowed to spend staggering sums on advertising. Its advertising is as insidious as it is dishonest. We are never shown pictures of real smokers coughing up their lungs early in the morning. That would never do. The advertisements always depict virile clean-shaven young men. They suggest it is manly to smoke, even positively healthy. Smoking is associated with the great open-air life, beautiful girls, true love and togetherness. What utter nonsense!

4. For a start governments could begin by banning all cigarette and tobacco advertising and should then conduct anti-smoking advertising campaigns of their own. Smoking should be banned in all public places like theatres, cinemas and restaurants. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dire consequences of taking up the habit. A horrific warning - say, a picture of death's head - should be included in every packet of cigarettes that is sold. As individuals we are certainly weak, but if governments acted honestly and courageously, they could protect us from ourselves.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text once again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

(If none of the variants is good enough, in your opinion, suggest your own heading.)

evil a) badness b) wickedness c) sin d) harm

commodity a) thing b) convenience c) product d) purchase

to take up a) to begin b) to raise up c) to have d) to develop

welfare a) well-being b) prosperity c) security d) happiness

1. In which paragraph does the author

1. Consequences of smoking (bronchial troubles, heart disease, lung cancer).

2. Governments’ reaction to smoking (to take timid measures, to see no evil, lukewarm).

3. A wonderful commodity (tobacco, to tax, short-sighted policy, to spend money on research, to cure people, to ban smoking altogether).

4. Measures to be taken (to ban, cigarette advertising/smoking, public places, to warn about, dire consequences of smoking).

Unit II

Pre-reading tasks

online shops shopping to get a refund

to be available to find out tips

economical seller’s physical address to ensure

convenient total cost to send cash

safe to save records of online transactions

3. Now look through the text to see:

a) if your guess about the contents of the text was correct;

b) what questions can be answered. (Answer these questions).

Love them or hate them, online shops are here to stay, and more and more are appearing on the World Wide Web every day.

(1) … . Online stores are usually available seven days a week, 24 hours a day, and many consumers have Internet access both at work and at home. With a click of a mouse, you can buy an airline ticket, book a hotel, send flowers to a friend, or purchase your favorite fashions. But sizing up your finds on the Internet is a little different from checking out items at the mall.

Shopping on the Internet can be economical, convenient, quick and no less safe than shopping in a store or by mail. (2) … .

Know who you're dealing with. Anyone can set up a shop online under almost any name. Confirm the online seller's physical address and phone number in case you have questions or problems. If you get an email or pop-up message while you're browsing that asks for financial information, don't reply or click on the link in the message. (3) … .

Know exactly what you're buying. Read the seller's description of the product closely, .especially the fine print.

Know what it will cost. (4) … . Factor shipping and handling into the total cost of the order. Do not send cash under any circumstances.

(5) … . Can you return the item for a full refund if you're not satisfied? If you return it, find out who pays the shipping costs or restocking fees, and when you will receive your order.

Keep a paper trail. Print and save records of your online transactions, including the product description and price, the online receipt, and copies of every email you send or receive from the seller.

These tips should ensure that you will have a safe and easy shopping experience. (6) … . If you don't feel comfortable buying an item over the Internet, or if you don't trust a website 100 per cent, then you may well be right. Happy shopping!

Post-reading tasks

Read the text once again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

a) Don’t trust online shops 100%.

b) Economical shopping.

c) Shopping online.

consumer a) buyer b) seller c) supplier d) visitor

economical a) careful b) expensive c) profitable d) wasteful

available a) obtainable b) at hand c) handy d) accessible

refund a) repayment b) money c) compensation

d) another product of the same kind

3. b). Fill in the blanks in the text (4-6) using one of the suggested variants (a-d). One variant is unnecessary.

1. Availability of online shops.

2. Advantages of online shopping.

3. Recommendations one should follow while doing his shopping online.

Unit III

Pre-reading tasks

to vandalize to become guardian of one’s own community

to intervene to take minor law and order into one’s hands

to rebuke somebody a sense of respect for authority

to call forth a lot of abuse

to get facts wrong to be guilty of

to push one’s luck to take ideas of active citizenship seriously

a) if your guess about the contents of the text was correct;

b) what questions can be answered. (Answer these questions).

1. Today how many of us seeing a group of 11- or 12-year-olds vandalizing a phone box or picking on a younger child would actually intervene? Yet if we don’t, who will? Intervening would be an example of ‘active citizenship’, in which citizens should become guardians of their own communities. Instead of asking for more and more policemen, we should take minor law and order into our own hands. Frankly, this strikes me as unrealistic to the point of lunacy. In a highly disciplined society — Japan, for instance — you might well get away with rebuking someone for antisocial behaviour. But this is because the Japanese have a very highly developed sense of respect for authority. I remember sitting in a subway train in Kyoto and noticing, to my surprise, that a young man sitting opposite me had put his feet up on the seat without removing his shoes. As a foreigner, and with limited Japanese, I did not even think of rebuking him. But he caught my glance, obviously read my unspoken thought, blushed and removed his feet. Try anything like this on the London Underground and you might find that even an unspoken, but obvious, thought will call forth a lot of abuse which has become such a notable feature of our society.

2. We all have at the back of our minds the notion that we are entitled to make a “citizen's arrest”. But I have never met anyone mad enough to try a citizen's arrest — and with good reason. If you get your facts wrong and jump to a hasty conclusion that the man lying on the ground is the victim when he actually started the fight, then you could be guilty of 'false arrest' and be held responsible for it. Surely, there are times when we have to do something. The French actually have a strict law that makes it a criminal offence if you fail to assist someone in danger or distress.

3. In Cairo a few months ago, coming out of a restaurant, I was approached by three ragged boys begging for money. They were obviously just about to snatch my wallet and run off when two passers-by on oppose sides of the street bellowed at them in a real fury, and sent them off their way. I doubt this would happen in London. But in Cairo everyone smokes on trains and buses, everyone drops masses of litter and everybody hates the police.

4. A few years ago an elderly, publicly spirited woman I know saw a well-built mugger snatch a handbag from a girl on the Underground. She followed him down the escalator, found him standing on a platform waiting for a train, marched up to him and said: “Young man, give me that handbag.” He was so startled that he meekly handed it over. Then she really did behave like an active citizen: “You will now come with me upstairs and we shall find a policeman and he will arrest you.” “Ma’am”, he replied, “don’t push your luck.” This is what I would say to anybody prepared to take these ideas of active citizenship too seriously.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text once again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

rebuking a) reproaching b) beating c) arresting d) disgracing

meekly a) obediently b) reluctantly c) hastily d) patiently

abuse a) misuse b) maltreatment c) attack d) swearing

hasty a) quick b) thoughtless c) prompt d) fast

distress a) danger b) trouble c) pain d) worry

1. Citizens, to become guardians, community.

2. People, to take into one’s hands, minor law, order.

3. Highly disciplined society, Japan, to get away with, to rebuke, antisocial behaviour.

4. Japanese, a sense of respect for authority.

5. A young man, to put one’s feet up, to catch one’s glance, to blush, to remove.

6. The London Underground, to call forth, abuse.

7. To make citizen’s arrest, to get facts wrong, to be guilty of, false arrest.

8. France, strict law, to fail to assist, in danger, a criminal offence.

9. An elderly woman, to behave, active citizen, to push one’s luck.

Unit IV

Pre-reading tasks

to get older to live longer to increase

life expectancy genetic engineering to promote long life

to alter diet to reduce to control

process of ageing number of calories to function efficiently

immune system intake of vitamin E

2. Think of and write down 5 questions the answers to which this text might contain.

3. Now look through the text to see:

a) if your guess about the contents of the text was correct;

b) what questions can be answered. (Answer these questions)

1. People are getting older — an obvious truth, isn’t it? Everyone ages with the passing of time. But there is another meaning to this unavoidable fact. It is that people’s life expectancy is increasing and there are a growing number of people in the world who live longer than ever before. In 1900 there were between 10 and 17 million people aged 65 or older; they made up less than 1% of the world’s population. Now there are about 345 million people in this age group, constituting over 6% of the world’s population. Average life expectancy has increased from 26 years 2,000 years ago, to 49 years at the beginning of the twentieth century and to 76 years in many countries today. The Japanese have the longest life expectancy, with women living to an average age of 82.5 and men to 76.2.

2. However, despite the rise in average life expectancy, there does not seem to have been an increase in maximum lifespan. In other words, more people are living longer today than in the past, but the longest time that anyone lives has not changed much over many centuries. The longest that a human is known to have lived is 120 years; this figure compares with maximum life expectancies of 150 years for a tortoise and three-and-a-half years for a mouse. The age of 120 years seems to be a limit for human life. The challenge for scientists is to raise this limit.

3. One way of increasing lifespan may be by means of genetic engineering. Scientists have doubled the life of a certain type of fly from 25 to 50 days by using the flies that live the longest for breeding. It is thought that the flies have over 100 genes which control the process of ageing. Humans probably have more than 1,000 such genes. If some of these can be identified and treated in some way, it may be feasible to delay the ageing process.

4. It may also be possible to increase lifespan by altering diet in various ways. In experiments on rats and other animals, scientists have found that reducing the number of calories taken in by the animals actually increases their lifespan. Although this may seem strange, it is supported by the evidence of a small group of people who lived in a specially-constructed environment in order to see how people can adapt to living on another planet such as Mars. These people grew their own food inside the place where they lived, but because of problems with food production their diet was very restricted for several months. Surprisingly, their blood pressure and cholesterol levels fell and the immune systems of their bodies functioned more efficiently than before. There is obviously a limit of the reduction of calorie intake and most people would probably not be very happy restricting their diet in this way, but scientists may discover a way of producing the effects of calorie restriction without causing feelings of hunger!

5. Another way in which diet may promote long life is through the intake of vitamin E. Scientists studying people over 100 years old found that they had high levels of vitamin E in their bodies, while in an experiment people who took extra vitamin E had 40% less risk of suffering from heart disease than others.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text once again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

intake a) consumption b) production c) conservation

d) absorption

to promote a) to prevent b) to ensure c) to raise d) to assist

feasible a) impossible b) convenient c) plausible d) possible

to delay a) to postpone b) to put off c) to slow down

d) to hinder

4. Put the jumbled sentences in the logical order to sum up the information given in the text.

5. Use the following words and word combinations to speak about the ageing process and possibilities of increasing lifespan.

1. To get older, ageing, unavoidable.

2. Life expectancy, to increase.

3. Despite, rise, average life expectancy, increase, maximum lifespan.

4. The longest, a human, to live, 120 years.

5. Way, to increase, lifespan, genetic engineering.

6. 1000 genes, to control, the process of ageing.

7. Scientists, to treat genes, to delay, ageing process.

8. To alter diet, to increase lifespan.

9. To reduce calorie intake, to result in, immune system, to function more effectively.

10. To promote, longer life, intake, vitamin E.

Unit V

Pre-reading tasks

real life to miss the best moments to enjoy this very day

rehearsal to be under pressure to realize dreams

majority temporary state of affairs life-long planning

to give up to realize dreams to procrastinate

a) if your guess about the contents of the text was correct;

b) what questions can be answered. (Answer these questions)

SEVERAL YEARS ago while sheltering from a typhoon in a sleazy motel in Cincinnati I came across a tattered beer-stained notice pinned to a wall above a public telephone. It read simply: “This isn’t a rehearsal. This is Life, don’t miss it.”

It was a message which has ghosted through my life ever since. How many of us can honestly claim not to have mortgaged our lives to some future dream, a dream which as likely as not will never be realized?

We live life on the never-never: telling ourselves that just as soon as we have got past this or that particularly onerous chore or stage we will be able to devote our energies to what we really want to do.

I must admit to being a master of the art of the never-never. Daily I say to myself that as soon as I have finished this or that script, or article or paid off my overdraft, then I will really start to live. It is, I believe, a delusion I share with the great hopeful majority, and a delusion it is dangerous to harbour, because each of us knows that tomorrow never comes.

For some I suspect that this life-long planning for the future is a way of procrastinating: a get-out for not having the will, talent or nerve for trying something new and discovering oneself to be a failure.

How many people have I met who have told me about the book they have been planning to write but have never yet found the time? Far too many.

This is Life, all right, but we do treat it like a rehearsal and, unhappily, we do miss so many of its best moments.

We take jobs to stay alive and provide homes for our families always convincing ourselves that this style of life is merely a temporary state of affairs along the road to what we really want to do. Then, at 60 or we are suddenly presented with a clock and a couple of grandchildren and we look back and realize that all those years waiting for Real Life to come along were in fact real life.

In America they have a saying much ridiculed by the English: “Have a nice day” they intone in their shops, hotels and sandwich bars. I think it is a wonderful phrase, reminding us, in effect, to enjoy the moment: to appreciate this very day.

How often do we say to ourselves, “I’ll take up horse-riding (or golf, or sailing) as soon as I get promotion,” only to do none of those things when promotion comes.

When I first became a journalist I knew a man who gave up a very well paid responsible job at the Daily Telegraph to go and edit a small weekly newspaper. At the time I was astonished by what appeared to me to be his complete mental aberration. How could anyone turn his back on Fleet Street for the parish pump? I wanted to know.

Now I am a little older and possibly wiser, I see the sense in it. In Fleet Street the man was under continual pressure. He lived in an unattractive London suburb and he spent much of his life sitting on Southern Region trains.

In Kent he became his own boss, lived within minutes of the office in a very pretty village and found his life enriched tenfold. His ambition for advancement in his career had been smothered by his enjoyment of the life he was leading. His life had stopped being a rehearsal and become the real thing.

I am not suggesting that this would suit every one of us. Unhappily it would not suit me. But in many ways I consider that man in Kent to be one of the luckiest chaps I know.

I am not advocating that one should live for the minute in any hedonistic sense. That isn’t the answer. But it is, I hope, an exhortation to some degree of self-fulfillment. Whatever you want to do, do it now: because, no matter how old you are, it’s later than you think.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text once again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

to share a) to divide b) to distribute c) to participate

d) to have equal shares with others in the use, enjoyment, etc of something

chore a) work b) job c) unpleasant task

d) ordinary task

to miss a) to fail b) to drop c) to be late

d) to lose an opportunity

to advocate a) to recommend b) to promote c) to support

d) to argue

1. Message, to come across, to read, life, rehearsal.

2. To mortgage one’s life to, future dream, never, to realize.

3. To persuade, to get past, onerous stage, to devote one’s energy.

4. To share a delusion, majority, tomorrow, never, to come.

5. Life-long planning, way, to procrastinate.

6. To take up golf or sailing, to get promotion.

7. To give up, well-paid, to edit, small newspaper.

8. Life, to enrich, tenfold, to stop, rehearsal.

9. Life style, to suit, everybody.

10. Whatever, to want, to do, now.

Unit VI

Pre-reading tasks

to make a mess to decide

to keep rooms neat and tidy to give the rights

hostile/female territory to take the role of a parent

to feel like guests to feel responsibility

to have the last and counting vote martyr

a reaction against a command

2. Look through the text to see if your guess about its contents was correct. If it wasn’t, give the information that you have missed.

Are Men Lazy?

Why does it seem like men make more mess than women do?

Maybe we do make more mess in some places but we usually keep it neat and tidy where we work or where we have our hobbies. We mess more when we are in "female territory", where we for some reason feel that we are guests. And why do we feel like guests in some areas?

Often the woman occupies the kitchen, the living room, the bathroom and the bedroom. She often decides how it shall look, she buys the curtains, she chooses the colours, she makes the food and so on. What would happen if the husband tore down the curtains and said they were tasteless and looked horrible? I guarantee there would be trouble in the air. If the opposite happened, she took down the curtains, nothing much would happen. We, men, are somehow used to that. We would adjust to the new curtains in "our" room. It is difficult to make men feel responsibility in an area where the woman has the last and counting vote. Why do men always delay practical work at home?

Most women have heard our excuses: I will do it tomorrow. Does it have to be now? Maybe tomorrow.

This is not because we are lazy, but more like a reaction against a command. We wish to have something to say about things, and the very least we can do is to decide when to do it, since we are not in the position to decide if it should be done. We know it is the best time, right now, but do not like that she decides all the time. It is also annoying always to be asked to do this and that. And there is no difference in her voice whether she comments her little boy or her husband. She takes the role of a parent towards both. We immediately remember our mother when she was angry. We do not need a new mother. So, if a wife keeps up this mothering thing, she either gets a new son or an angry husband.

Why do not men feel satisfaction when cleaning?

We do not feel any satisfaction while cleaning up in her world. That is also why we would rather do it later. When we do it, it is to please her, not ourselves. While we discuss whether to do it or not, she often already has begun to do it herself. And now nothing can stop her. Now she will go on until she is finished. She is now the martyr, and enjoys feeling the hate against him and put another little note in the "black book".

Give us some of your domain and we will feel different about. Give us half of the rights, and we will do half of the work.

Then there is a woman who has heard about this, and declares that from this minute he has half the rights and tells him to go on with it. She has totally misunderstood. One must start from the beginning and make some choices. Do I need a husband, or do I need a butler? Am I ready and willing to take the consequences by giving my husband the right to decide how the bedroom should look like?

Post-reading tasks

Read the text again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

a) Give us more rights and we’ll do our best.

b) Don’t expect equality in the cleaning thing!

c) Equal rights, equal responsibilities!

lazy a) idle b) doing little work c) slow d) inert

to adjust a) to adapt b) to regulate c) to fix d) to arrange

mess a) trouble b) difficulty c) disorder d) dirtiness

right a) justice b) virtue c) goodness d) claim

domain a) field b) province c) territory d) branch

1. Men, to make a mess, women.

2. Men, to keep neat and tidy, female territory, to mess more.

3. Women, to decide, to look, her territory.

4. Men, usually, to adapt to, changes.

5. Men, to feel responsibility, area, women, the last and counting vote.

6. Men, to delay, housework, reaction, command.

7. Annoying, no right, to decide.

8. To feel no satisfaction, to clean up, woman’s world.

9. To give, female territory, rights, to feel different.

Unit VII

Pre-reading tasks

teenagers to come into contact

to grow up drugs

to allow freedom alcohol

to make life harder permissive

to lack experience to contend with

to tolerate to put on pressures

supportive aids

to receive less care threat

Teenagers Now

They seem to grow up so quickly these days” is commonly on adult lips followed by "When I was young" and a tirade of which the main line of argument seems to be that not only was life much harder, but that everyone did a better job of living it. It seems to me however, that there can be no objective discussion as no one is a teenager twice.

The young of today do have problems. They are considered adults long before their parents were. This removes the frustration of not being taken seriously or respected, and allows much more freedom. Unfortunately, it often makes life harder because teenagers are not adults. Although they look and act like adults, they lack experience and so often make mistakes which people don’t understand or tolerate. Unfortunately, the family is not such a strong and supportive unit as it was. One-parent families are common and mothers often work, either because they have to or because they wish to have a “career”. This means that children and teenagers receive less care and time, and this lack of parental input leads to many teenagers dropping out and not working. “Mothering” is no longer recognized as the most important and difficult job and this in turn devalues children and teenagers.

Young people start to dress and look like adults at an early age and so come into contact with drugs, cigarettes, alcohol and sex earlier. The permissive society that we live in now is very contradictory and difficult to contend with. It has also so changed that parents have no idea of the pressures put on the young by their peers and so cannot help them. AIDS is a new threat, but perhaps will help teenagers as it will prevent them from “sleeping around” and so losing much self-respect. It might also give them an unquestionable reason for saying “no’.

If you conclude, as I have, that adolescence is harder now than it was for our parents, it might also be recognized that being a parent is also now more difficult.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

a) Is it difficult to be a teenager?

b) Teenagers’ problems.

c) Nowadays being a teenager is as difficult as being a parent.

to tolerate a) to permit b) to allow c) to stand d) to authorize

permissive a) giving permission b) optional c) tolerant d) giving more

opportunities

peer a) equal b) noble c) lord d) rival

lack a) want b) need c) abundance d) absence

frustration a) defeat b) disappointment c) discouragement d) failure

1. These days, teenagers, to grow up, quickly.

2. Objective discussion, none, to be, teenager, twice.

3. The young, to have, problems.

4. To become adult, long before, parents.

5. To allow, more freedom, to make, harder.

6. To lack experience, to make mistakes, elder people, to understand.

7. Supportive, family, to receive, less care and time.

8. To come into contact with, alcohol, drugs, cigarettes.

9. Modern society, contradictory, difficult, to contend with.

10. Society, to change, to put on pressures, peers, to help.

11. Adolescence, hard, to be a parent, difficult.

Unit VIII

Pre-reading tasks

modern life restlessness to deal with problems separately

stressful loss of appetite to share one’s responsibility with others

to compete sleeplessness to find the cause of stress

gloominess unsociability to earn as much as possible

to become tense to get rid of to to talk to somebody

signs of stress irritability to change one’s view over the situation

How to Reduce Stress and Tension

Modern life is stressful. We compete at work and often in sport and even with our friends. We try to save time and try to earn as much money as possible in order to possess cars, better houses, washing machines or to go on holiday so that we can relax after becoming so tense and tired!

Signs of stress: have you noticed any of these signs in yourself or in another person recently? Are these signs increasing?

Irritability, fussiness, gloominess, suspicion, indecision, excitability, restlessness, lack of concentration, unsociability, loss of appetite, over-eating, sleeplessness, drinking, smoking, worrying, tension.

What is causing the stress?

Many people try to get rid of the signs of stress instead of the cause. They may like sleeping pills or try to control the various signs in other ways. But the only satisfactory way of stopping stress is to find the cause of it. You may not be able to change the cause of the stress but understanding it will probably help.

It may be the death or illness of a friend, the loss of your job or money worries. And you can probably do nothing to change these.

It may be conflict inside yourself. Perhaps you feel you ought to do something but you don’t want to. You may have mixed feelings about someone or something and not know what to do. All you can do is to try to examine yourself and what you feel is right. It may be helpful to talk to someone about it. It may be that you feel hopeless in a situation. Try to be realistic; make a list of all the characteristics of the situation and of yourself and then face the facts.

Perhaps you feel weak, interior, not good enough, ignored or guilty. Once more, try to be realistic. It may be true! If it is true it may not really be so serious. But it may not be true or it may not be as simple as you might think. We sometimes see only our own position in a situation. It may well be that other people also have their own problems or are also guilty, etc. you may be able to change your view of the situation by redefining it, and saying quite simply “Oh, it could be worse” or “Well, there’s another side to it.”

Perhaps you have several different problems. Try to see them separately and deal with them one by one. Perhaps you feel you have too much responsibility. Share some of it. Or just don’t do something. It is amazing how life can continue if we don’t do something, which we thought was very important.

It may be that you are acting in a way, which isn’t natural to you. This may be causing you stress. Is it worth it?

Perhaps you are stressed by fears you can’t identify. Do your best to decide whether they are real or not.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

a) Modern life is full of stress.

b) Recipes for happiness.

c) Finding the cause of stress is a way of getting rid of it.

to compete a) to cooperate b) to oppose c) to rival d) to fight

tense a) tight b) stretched c) excited d) worried

to deal with a) to trade b) to distribute c) to behave d) to cope

to share a) to participate b) to divide c) to distribute

1. Modern life is full of stress and tension.

2. The signs of stress: irritability, gloominess, suspicion, unsociability, restlessness, sleeplessness, etc.

3. Getting rid of stress is finding its cause.

4. Causes of stress.

5. Tips to follow if you want to change the state of affairs.

Unit IX

Pre-reading tasks

to get on one’s nerves generation gap

parents to hold adult conversations

to embarrass to disapprove of something

to avoid upsetting each other to be under pressure

understanding to antagonize somebody

two-way process to worry

to be open and reasonable to deceive

Believe It or not, Your Parents Can Be Your Friends

Mother, father, brothers and sisters they can get on your nerves, just as you can get on theirs. Have you ever felt that you don’t want your father to pick you up from a party because you think your friends might laugh at him?

And what about you? Have you ever asked your parents personal questions in public? The members of a family can embarrass each other, even without meaning to. But if you’re sensitive to each other’s feelings you’ll be able to avoid upsetting each other too badly.

Understanding a parent is a two-way process. If your parents are open and reasonable with you, you owe it to them to be open and reasonable with them. That means telling them where you’re going; who you’re going with and when you’ll be back.

Believe it or not, your parents can be your best friends and they’ll be pleased that you’re growing up.

However, as you grow up, relationships within your family will change. The adults will continue to love and look after you, but the relationship will become much more one between equals.

The difference between your philosophy and way of life and your parents’ is often referred to as the generation gap. You may think your parents are really old. But try to think about them as ordinary people. They have good days and bad days, too.

Sometimes parents are under all sorts of pressures. They may worry about money, or if they're a single parent, they may be lonely. Or they may be worried about getting old themselves. Your parents also have to deal with a world that is changing faster than it did when they were young.

What’s the best action to take if you want to do something that you think a parent will disapprove of? First, work out why you think they’ll disapprove. If you can present a carefully worked out argument, you’re doing well. Talk things over with friends or brothers and sisters. Has anyone been in a similar situation? If you treat your parents in an honest way, their response is bound to be more reasonable. If you antagonize them, your job will be much harder.

A parent often worries that his or her children are the only ones who want to do things they don’t approve of. Help your parent to see that it isn’t true. Introduce them to your friends and show them that you all want similar things. Talk to other people’s parents and see how they react. In some ways, you will find life easier than those young people who are allowed to do anything. And remember, if you want to change things, think before you act. Never lie to or deceive your parents.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

a) Mutual understanding is a basis for good relations in the family.

b) Generation gap.

c) Parents are always easy to come to terms.

to embarrass a) to interfere b) to confuse c) to upset d) to disturb

sensitive a) touchy b) vulnerable c) delicate d) irritable

to disapprove a) to deny b) to praise c) to blame

d) to have an unfavourable opinion

to refer to a) to direct b) to regard c) to mention d) to concern

to owe a) to be in debt to somebody b) to attribute

c) to be obliged (to) d) to possess

Unit X

Pre-reading tasks

sport feelings of rivalry

to create good will to arouse

to lead to hatred to humiliate

competitive to gain a victory

the question of prestige to intervene

to do one’s utmost to cheat

to win crowd

to have nothing to do with fair play

The Sporting Spirit

I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates good will between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. Even if one didn’t know from concrete examples that international sporting contests lead to hatred one could deduce it from general principles.

Nearly all sports nowadays are competitive. You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise; but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this.

At the international level sport is frankly mimic warfare. But the significant thing is not the behaviour of the players but the attitude of the spectators; and behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests and seriously believe that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue. As soon as strong feelings of rivalry are aroused, the notion of playing the game according to the rules always vanishes. People want to see one side on top and the other side humiliated and they forget that victory gained through cheating or through the intervention of the crowd is meaningless. Even when the spectators don’t intervene physically they try to influence the game by cheering their own side and rattling opposing players. Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules, in other words, it is war minus the shooting.

I do hot, of course, suggest that sport is one of the main causes of international rivalry; big-scale sport is itself, I think, merely another effect of the causes that have produced nationalism. Still, you do make things worse by sending forth a team of eleven men to do battle against some rival team. There are quite enough real causes of trouble already, and we need not add to them.

Post-reading tasks

Read the text again to fulfill the tasks to follow.

a) Serious sport and fair play are incompatible.

b) Sport as one of the main reasons for international rivalry.

c) Ambiguous nature of sport.

fair a) considerable b) beautiful c) light d) honest

to intervene a) to happen b) to interfere c) to interrupt d) to disturb

rivalry a) match b) competition c) contest d) tournament

to humiliate a) to insult b) to offend c) to praise d) to shame

1. To be amazed, sport, to create, good will.

2. International competitions, to lead, hatred.

3. Sport, competitive.

4. To do one’s utmost, sportsmen.

5. The question of prestige, to arise, to arouse, savage, combative instincts.

6. Attitude, spectators, to be significant.

7. Feelings of rivalry, to arouse, to play, according to rules.

8. People, to intervene, to influence, game.

9. Sport, to have nothing to do, fair play.

10. Sport, to cause, international rivalry.

11. Enough, real causes, trouble, to add.

PART 2

UNIT XI

Key words and expressions: to like, to find strange, to promote, male-dominated, experience, relaxed atmosphere, obvious difficulties, cultural differences.

Pre-reading tasks

Made in Japan, Sold on Britain

54,400 Japanese live in Britain. How do they find life here?

4.400 Japanese live in Britain: 12,000 are business people, 5,800 are students, most of the rest are their families. The Japanese like Britain. They find it strange, but they like it.

Masami Sato, one of only 70 office ladies' junior women managers - in Britain, is happy. She says, most things are better here than in Tokyo -there are so many parks and green fields'.

As an office lady, she cannot be promoted above her present junior managerial position, but she thinks the UK is less male-dominated than Japan. She is in London as part of a scheme to give office ladies overseas experience (they are allowed to go to 10 cities considered safe - none of them are in the United States), and she does not want to go back to Tokyo when the time comes next year.

When I go back to Japan, I have to live with my family', she says. There are few amusements and we can't be relaxed because all Japanese are very busy'.

The Japanese appreciate the space, the more relaxed atmosphere and the longer holidays, but they also experience some difficulties: the most obvious is the language beerier was very hard at first. I used to sit hours at the parties not understanding a single word. But the children become absolutely bilingual. Mr Kojima has lived in Wales for two years, and still has problems. The language is very difficult, but the staff are very experienced at explaining to the Japanese, he saysI can understand the explanations, but I can't understand when they talk to each other”.

Besides the language, there are also cultural differences which can make life difficult. Banker Kaoru says the British like arguments, the Japanese don't. They dislike raising the opposite opinion. In Japan everyone respects the opinion of the majority'.

Post-reading tasks

a) Life in the UK is not a bed of roses.

b) East or West home is best.

c) The problems of immigrants.

junior a) older b) higher in rank с) superior d) lower in rank

obvious a) credible b) evident c) permanent d) solvable

to appreciate a) to value b) to evaluate c) to apprehend d) to adore

to respect a) to despise b) to look up c) to approve d) to assess

1. The majority of Japanese living in Britain ... .

2. As an 'office-lady' Masami Sato cannot be promoted but ... .

3. The aim of the program is... .

4. The advantages of living in Great Britain are ... .

5. The difficulties the Japanese living in the UK might come across are ... .

6. They also face cultural difficulties such as ... .

7. Language barrier … .

1. More than 54 400 Japanese live in the UK. They like it. (And)

2. Masami Sato a junior manage is happy. Most things are better in this country. (Because)

3. She is quite satisfied with her position. She cannot be promoted. (Although)

4. At home she cannot be relaxed. All Japanese are busy. (Because)

5. The Japanese have problems in sociolizing. They enjoy the relaxed atmosphere. (Despite)

UNIT XII

Key words and expressions: to drop an atomic bomb, to test, to explode, to survive, to cause destruction, serious damage, to kill and injure, casualties, unnecessary attack, remembrance.

Pre-reading tasks

Towards the end of World War II, the United States decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan to force Japan to surrender as quickly as possible. The first atomic bomb was completed and tested in New Mexico on July l6th 1945, and on July 25th the order to drop the atomic bomb was issued by the U.S. President at that time, Harry S. Truman. On August 6th 1945, history was changed forever when the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. For the first time, an atomic bomb had been fired on a military target. Three days later, a second bomb was released on Nagasaki.

On August 6th 1945, at 8:15 A.M., Japanese time, the Enola Gay, a B-29 heavy bomber jet, dropped 'Little Boy' on Hiroshima. 'Little Boy', the nickname given to this atomic bomb, exploded one minute after it was released at an altitude of 2000 feet above ground level. The bomb exploded with a blinding flash in the sky and produced a ferocious heat wave and blast that caused indiscriminate destruction. The bomb generated a strong wind that caused the most serious damage to the city and people. 66,000 people were killed and 69,000 injured. It is estimated that more than 140,000 people died due to the bomb by the end of the year. Hiroshima was selected as the primary target for the atomic bomb because of the existence of a concentration of military installations, troops, and factories in the city. Its size and topography also made it an ideal place for testing the atomic bomb's destructive capabilities.

Three days later, on August 9th, at exactly 11:02 A.M., a second bomb, nicknamed 'Fat Man', was dropped in the industrial section of the city of Nagasaki. 'Fat Man' killed 39,000 people and injured 25,000 more. Even though there were more casualties in Hiroshima, 'Fat Man' proved to be more powerful, because the destruction radius was greater in Nagasaki (14,000 feet) than in Hiroshima (12,000 feet).

The injuries inflicted on the people resulting from the atomic explosions were: burns from flash radiation of heat and from fires ignited by the explosion; direct physical effects of the blast pressure; mechanical injuries from flying debris or the collapse of buildings, and radiation effects. Most of the casualties resulted from mechanical injuries.

In the years since the bombings, some people have said that dropping the atomic bombs ended World War Two, while others have said that it was an unnecessary attack because it did not yield the result desired. Every year on August 6th in Hiroshima people float lanterns filled with prayers and messages of peace in remembrance of the tens of thousands who died in those terrible events.

Post-reading tasks

to yield a) to lose b) to turn out c) to give d) to test

casualties a) accidents b) disasters c) events d) killed and injured

target a) aim b) site c) spot d) objective

to prove a) to confirm b) to test c) to appear d) to demonstrate

a) Hiroshima.

b) New Mexico.

c) Nagasaki.

d) The United States.

a) August 6th 1945.

b) July 25th 1945.

c) July 16th 1945.

d) August 9th 1945.

a) a sudden flash of light.

b) a blast of hot air.

c) extensive damage to Hiroshima.

d) 69,000 deaths.

a) it was easy to concentrate on.

b) it was the largest city in Japan.

c) it was easy to destroy.

d) many military bases were located there.

a) caused a greater number of deaths than 'Little Boy'.

b) damaged a larger area than 'Little Boy'.

c) was less powerful than 'Little Boy'.

d) was the first atomic bomb ever used in warfare.

a) radiation poisoning.

b) deep wounded cuts.

c) burns.

d) injuries caused by machinery.

a) the bombings did not need to happen.

b) we should all remember those who died.

c) such bombings should never happen again.

d) the war ended thanks to the bombings.

4. Using these words and word combinations express the main idea of each paragraph, add connectors or your own words where appropriate.

5. Put the jumbled sentences in the logical order to sum up the contents of the text.

UNIT XIII

Key words and expressions: fashion industry, to promote, to achieve success, competitors, to support, to hold fairs, to increase funding, to create industrial and financial links, better image.

Pre-reading tasks

Fashion has always been important to the Spanish but until recently they haven't had a home-grown fashion industry and have imported most of their clothing. All that is changing now, however. The Spanish government is busily promoting the clothing and fashion sectors of the textile industry. Their ultimate goal is to make their fashion products so well regarded on the international market because of their quality that this success will spread to other product areas and export markets.

Spain is starting from scratch when you compare it with fashionable competitors like Italy and France. But there is activity everywhere. The government has set up organizations to support the fashion industry, organizing projects such as combined efforts between fashion designers and people in business. The country holds fashion fairs twice a year, the Cibeles in Madrid, and the Gaudi in Barcelona. There is also a children's fair in Valencia which further demonstrates Spaniards' creative progress to international fashion buyers.

The government is trying to create an environment where fashion and textile designers have an opportunity to prosper. Talented companies and designers can succeed in Spain but although there is much creativity, there is a lack of managerial experience. Some people still do not believe enough is being done, and point to Italy where they believe there are far better chances for designers to succeed. One highly regarded Spanish designer is now manufacturing her entire line of clothing in partnership with an Italian company. The problem, as some see it, is that the amount of money being provided by the Spanish government is still not enough. People in the fashion industry know they will not be able to make an impression in foreign countries unless government funding is increased.

Nevertheless, much progress is being made. While the exclusive salons are in the larger cities, studios and boutiques are opening throughout Spain and many Spaniards are already involved in exporting their clothes. Through their own efforts, designers are beginning to open shops in France, Italy and Japan. But most fashion houses are quite small, and they are finding it difficult to create the industrial and financial links needed for growth and expansion.

Many designer products are hard to make, expensive to market and sometimes difficult to sell. But they create a better image for the industry, and you end up with higher quality products in general. One international critic thinks that the relative youth of the Spanish industry could create fresh and lively fashions, well able to compete with the industries in France and Italy.

Post-reading tasks

to spread a) to expand b) to occupy c) to distribute d) to stretch out

lack a) drawback b) failure c) disadvantage d) deficiency

competitor a) co-worker b) colleague c) rival d) enemy

from scratch a) at the beginning b) from memory c) from time to time d) starting from nothing

1. The Spanish government is trying to achieve

a) high quality of all Spanish products.

b) an increase in clothing sales.

c) a change in the textile industry.

2. Tо show their advances the Spanish

a) hold exhibitions and shows.

b) send designers abroad.

c) invite foreign designers.

3. The Spanish fashion industry lacks

a) talented designers.

b) support from French designers.

c) government money.

4. The people involved in fashion are afraid of

a) strong competition.

b) not having creative designers.

c) not having enough money for the industry to expand.

5. Some fashion designers started

a) to open shops in Europe.

b) to open big shops throughout Spain.

c) to obtain financing for exporting their products.

6. Fashion businesses find it hard to expand because

a) they are too small.

b) their clothes are too expensive.

c) there are few industries wanting to expand.

5. Put jumbled sentences in the logical order to sum up the contents of the text.

UNIT XIV

Key words and expressions: women entrepreneurs, to enter business, lack of training, to rise in number, to earn a degree, to face obstacles, to exclude, on one's own, to succeed, men dominated.

Pre-reading tasks

Until recently, most American entrepreneurs were men. Discrimination against women in business, the demands of caring for families, and lack of business training had kept the number of women entrepreneurs small. Now, however, businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion in annual revenues, and this figure is likely to continue rising. As Carolyn Doppelt Gray, an official of the Small Business Administration has noted, "The 1980s was the decade of women entering management, and this decade has turned out to be the decade of the woman entrepreneur."

What are some of the factors behind this trend? For one thing, as more women earn advanced degrees in business and enter the corporate world, they are finding obstacles. Women are still excluded from most executive suites. Charlotte Taylor, a management consultant, had noted, "In the 1970s women believed if they got an MBA and worked hard, they could become chairman of the board. Now they've found out that isn't going to happen, so they go out on their own."

In the past, most women entrepreneurs worked in "women's" fields cosmetics and clothing, for example. But this is changing. Consider ASK Computer Systems, a $22-milIion-a-year computer software business. It was founded by Sandra Kurtzig, who was then a housewife with degrees in math and engineering. When Kurtzig founded the business, her first product was software and her office was a bedroom at home, with a shoebox under the bed to hold the company's cash. After she succeeded with the newspaper software system, she hired several bright computer-science graduates to develop additional programs. When these were marketed and sold, ASK began to grow. It now has 200 employees and Sandra Kurtzig owns $ 66.9 million of stock.

Of course, many women who start their own businesses fail, just as men-often do. They still face hurdles in the business world, especially problems in raising money; the banking and finance world is still dominated by men, and old attitudes die hard. Most businesses owned by women are still quite small.

But the situation is changing; there are likely to be many more Sandra Kurtzigs in the years ahead.

Post-reading tasks

entrepreneur a) shop assistant b) business person c) manager d) boss

hurdle a) obstacle b) drawback c) disadvantage d) trouble

board a) chief manager b) committee c) officials d) authorities

to hire a) to include b) to enroll c) to monitor d) to employ

CONNECTORS: in spite of (the fact that), despite, because, nevertheless, however, that's why, notwithstanding, although.

1. The major obstacle to women in the business world was

a) lack of abilities.

b) lack of academic degrees.

c) male domination in business and discrimination.

2. The author of the article believes that women

a) were unrealistic about their opportunities in management.

b) were more interested in education than in business itself.

c) were unable to work hard enough to succeed.

3. The author mentions "the shoebox under the bed" in order to

a) show the resourcefulness of Sandra.

b) stress that her financial resources were initially limited.

c) suggest that the company needed to expand.

4. Businesses owned by women are small because

a) women cannot deal with money property.

b) many women still encounter obstacles.

c) women prefer a small intimate setting.

5. The author’s attitude to the future of women in business is

a) sceptical.

b) negative.

c) optimistic.

UNIT XV

Pre-reading tasks

MARIA MONTESSORI: biographical notes

Among greatest educators of the 20th century

Founder of Montessori schools chief strategy - follow the child

EARLY LIFE

Born Ancona (Italy) 1870 in a middle-class family.

Studied medicine in Rome. First woman graduate of medicine (1896). Working as a physician.

Contact with children from poor families.

DEVELOPMENT OF MONTESSORI SCHOOLS

1907 -founded first schools.

First schools in USA -1911.

Wrote more than 20 books on education theory and practice.

Developed pioneering Montessori method.

Key words and expressions: to learn better, enriched environment, to stimulate, purposeful activity, to develop self-confidence, influence on education, learner centered.

4 Guess the meaning of the international words.

To adapt, to stimulate, a variety, to summarize, activity, specific, prevalent, disciplinarian, to nominate, senses.

Montessori Method

There are a number of key principles of the so-called 'Montessori method' which are still used in Montessori schools world-wide and widely copied and adapted elsewhere. Let me summarize these briefly now.

Firstly, there is the belief that children learn better if they are placed in what is called an 'enriched environment' - that is an environment which stimulates the senses through pictures, sound, colour, touch, etc., and in which the children themselves can choose from a wide variety of activities. Children need a wide range of activities from which they can choose what they'd like to do, rather than everybody having to do the same thing at the same time.

Secondly, the idea that children learn through purposeful activity, not just play, but activities with a purpose, for example, making something, drawing pictures, etc. Given a choice, children will choose work rather than play. Toys which do not serve a specific purpose are therefore discouraged.

And thirdly, in order that children develop confidence and self-esteem, they should always be treated with respect and should be allowed to develop at their own pace - a sharp contrast to many of the disciplinarian attitudes which were prevalent at the time when Montessori was developing her ideas.

Having looked at those principles, let's look briefly at some of the key events in Montessori's later life before summarizing her influence on the world of education today.

In her later years, Montessori travelled widely, spending several years in Spain, India and the UK. It was typical of her energy that, even in her seventies she remained as active and dynamic as ever. She was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions - in 1949, 19S0 and 1951. She died in the Netherlands in 1952. She had previously insisted that she was buried there rather than in her native Italy as she considered herself a citizen of the world”.

The influence of Montessori is still widely felt today. She was among the first to put the learner at the centre of the learning process. As she wrote herself 'We teachers can only help the work going on, as servants wait upon a master.' There are now thousands of Montessori schools in more than fifty countries, and former students include Jacqueline Kennedy and the British royal princes, William and Harry.

Post-reading tasks

The text deals with the description ... .

The author points out the main...and adduces ... .

The text gives a brief outline of ... .

to discourage a) to force b) to disappoint c) to deprive d) to dissuade

to wait upon a) to serve b) to accompany c) to hope for d) expect

to treat a) to cure b) to discuss c) to regard d) to offer food

pace a) step b) speed c) peace d) rate

4. Put the jumbled sentences in the logical order to sum up the contents of the text.

UNIT XVI

Key words and expressions: compulsion to buy, hobby, financial ruin, rising incomes, personal problems, excitement, to feel important, to escape the demands of life.

Pre-reading tasks

A Nation of Shopaholics

It's the sort of thing men joke about in the pub. 'My wife's addicted to shopping', they'll say, while their mates grin and nod sympathetically.

A study suggests however, that the compulsion to buy may be a growing problem, affecting as many as one in five people, and in extreme cases leading to family breakup and financial ruin. [1]

The number of people who confess to being shopaholics has grown from fifteen percent to twenty-two percent of the population in five years. And while twenty-nine percent of women admit to being addicted, so do fifteen percent of men. Shopping is no longer simply a way of providing .essentials for the family, say market researchers, to many women it is more like a hobby.

True, many people have more money to spend these days. Personal disposable income has risen in twenty years. However, what they buy is not necessarily what they can afford.

Over the same period, the number of people using credit cards has increased by four times, and consumer debt has trebled. [2]

A bank executive stole more than €150,000 from her employers and blew it on clothes and make-up to 'escape the stresses of being a working mother'. Lyne Harding hid her purchases from her husband, who had no idea of what she was doing. And she got away with it for four years. [3]

Spending sprees can be a symptom of serious personal problems, according to researchers who have studied the subject. There are 'revenge shoppers', who want to spite their husbands or boyfriends because they are unhappy with their relationships. There are those who need shopping trips to add excitement to their lives. Dr Helga Dittma, of the University of Sussex, believes habitual shopping - particularly for designer clothes and jewellery - is a symptom of a collapse of self-esteem. 'Addicts want not only the latest fashions, they want to feel like the sort of person who would normally own them, and to feel important, glamorous and loved.

Post-reading tasks

compulsion a) desire b) hope c) influence d) attempt

to afford a) to allow b) to supply c) to be able to buy d) to avail of

to admit a) to permit b) to let in c) to agree d) to claim

disposable a) the one you can spend freely b) the one you must save c) intended to be used only once d) personal

She went on huge spending sprees, sometimes spending thousands on designer clothes and make-up in one day. 'It was a vicious circle. 'I could not stop spending', she told the police after her arrest. 'It all started as an attempt to escape the demands of a full-time job, combined with looking after a home and children', she said.

Income, debt, consumer, purchases, vicious, market, to afford, to revenge, an addict.

Causes:

Consequences:

1. Family breakup.

2. Financial ruin.

5. Complete the following sentences.

6. Put the jumbled sentences in the logical order so as to sum up the contents of the text.

UNIT XVII

Key words and expressions: noise, traffic, jet-planes, to disturb, to do harm, difficult to remove, costly, economic conflict, to ignore the problem, public concern, to limit.

Pre-reading tasks

1. Look at the title of the text below and the key words and guess what the text is about.

The Noise about Noise

The roar of traffic, the squeal of brakes, the clickety-clack of typewriters, the pounding of machinery. We live and work among it all. It disturbs sleep, frays tempers, reduces working efficiency and does an unknown amount of actual physical harm. Noise has become the curse of modern civilization. But because it is the responsibility of nobody, because it is the by-product of almost every human activity, because being deaf is an affliction which fails to rouse human pity, the problem of controlling and limiting noise has been neglected.

The hazard is not recognized, even by the people subjected to noise. The noise is an unwanted and useless by-product, but one which is difficult and costly to remove. The noise the jet aircraft flying into London Airport makes is unpleasant enough for those who work at the airport, but even more so for those who live round about. The nuisance could be reduced by moving the airport to some remote part of the country, but this would inconvenience air travellers and cost a great deal. It is a matter of economic conflict between the public, largely disorganized but suffering a nuisance, and industry attempting to compete.

How much do people who live around noisy airports or near noisy factories really suffer? "There are a few notorious streets near the airport," said a Hounslow estate agent, 'where prices are £500 or £600 below what you'd expect.

Only in the past few years, since the multiplication of the motor-cars and strident-voiced jets has the public conscience been aroused. All over the world, communities are beginning to demand control of the onslaught on their ears. Rome and Paris banned the motor horn. American motor manufacturers have agreed to limit the noise made by their cars. And the Port of New York Authority led the rest of the world in devising regulations to limit the quite unbearable noise of big jets taking off from International Airport.

Post-reading tasks

affliction a) trouble b) harm c) illness d) symptom

onslaught a) attempt b) attack c) onset d) start

curse a) evil b) bad chance c) trouble d) hate

to disturb a) to interrupt b) to interfere into affairs

c) to irritate d) to break in upon a person

Synonyms: to prohibit, to damage, distant, to decrease, to suffer, to become exited, to remove, to restrict, to wear out, trouble, to ignore, unfavourably known.

CAUSES: traffic, noisy machinery, airports, jet-planes, a lot of cars, by-product of human activity, to neglect the problem.

CONSEQUENCES: unbearable noise, to disturb sleep, onslaught on ears, to reduce working efficiency, to suffer, to harm health, to become deaf

MEASURES: to arouse public concern, to demand control, to ban, to limit, to devise regulations, to move to distant locations

DIFFICULTIES: to neglect, to ignore the problem, a matter of economic conflict, costly.

UNIT XVIII

Key words and expressions: to play video games, to be addicted, computer games industry, profitable, boys and girls gaming profiles, psychologists, to attract older audience, to join forces with television and film industry.

Pre-reading tasks

The habits of those who constantly play video games are of great interest to people working in the video-game industry. If video games are going to be one of the most attractive features of future interactive television systems, it is important for manufacturers to know what types of games to produce, how best to present such games, and how to ensure that such games maintain fascination for people. Above all, it is essential to build up profiles of people who are addicted to video games.

Until recently, the chief market for video games has been boys aged eight to fifteen. The fascination for interactive video games is seen in its purest form in this group. Video games appeal to some deep instinct in boys, who find it impossible to tear themselves away from them. Schoolwork is neglected, health is damaged, and even eating habits are affected. Girls of the same age, however, are entirely different, demonstrating far greater freedom from the hold of video games. Quite simply, they can take video games in their stride, being able to play them when they want and then, leave them alone.

A few psychologists feel that video games may serve chiefly as a refuge for boys, who develop at a far slower rate than girls do in their early teens. As a result, young teenage boys often feel embarrassed and anxious in their dealing with girls of their age and tend to withdraw into sports, clubs, hobbies - and above all video gaming.

Aware of the reliance on boys of such a relatively narrow age group, some video-game manufacturers have tried to attract young boys while others have concentrated on providing an older audience, with an excuse to extend its game-playing habits into adulthood. These attempts have certainly had some success, though, it must be admitted, of a fairly limited nature in comparison with the huge success of the eight to fifteen age group.

No one has yet succeeded, however, in making video games attractive to the largest market of all: young adult women. These women buy more novels and watch more films and television dramas than any either single section of the population - but few show interest in video games. Since Hollywood has undoubtedly the best experience and expertise in bringing stories to life on the screen, several large video-game companies now feel it is time to join forces with the film industry. They feel that video games made by top-rate film directors and film stars must inevitably succeed in attracting women. Already well-known actors are being recruited to serve as models for the behavior and actions of the cartoon characters in video game: namely, that it is such fun to play that it is irresistible.

Post-reading tasks

fascination a) mystery b) attractiveness

c) simplicity d) delight

inevitably a) unexpectedly b) unavoidably

c) uncommonly d) unbearably

an excuse a) pretext b) pardon

c) mercy d) apology

to tear a) to divide b) to pull apart

c) to throw away d) to remove by force

1. Producers of video games are keen on

a) developing computer techniques.

b) finding the best ways to attract people.

c) devising ways to change their games into TV programmes.

2. The people who are most addicted to video games are

a) girls between eight to fifteen.

b) boys aged from eight to fifteen.

c) young adult women.

3. The addiction can be so powerful that it can

a) make people physically ill.

b) destroy people's instincts.

c) make people seek protection.

4. Young teenage boys are reluctant to talk to girls of their age because

a) the girls are not interested in video games.

b) boys are interested only in video games.

c) boys are slower in their development than girls.

5. Games manufacturers

a) succeeded in attracting boys who are over fifteen.

b) failed in attracting adults.

c) provided an older audience with games suitable for their age.

1. People in games industry are interested in the habits of game addicts.

2. Boys are more addicted to video games.

3. Boys develop at a slower rate than girls do.

4. Those who are awfully keen on games cannot tear themselves from them.

5. Games manufacturers made some attempts to attract older audience.

6. Young adult women are least addicted to games.

Connectors: that's why, because, while, nevertheless, as a result, although, in contrast to, moreover.

1. Girls develop faster than boys in their teens.

2. Boys are awfully keen on video games.

3. Games are not very popular with young adult women.

4. Health is damaged and they do badly at school.

5. Games made by famous film producers might appeal to women.

6. Some producers focus on games for adult people.

7. The consequences of being addicted to video games are dramatic.

Unit XIX

Key words and expressions: to tell lies, compliments, psychologists, to accept or reject a lie, reasons for lying, to spot a lie.

Pre-reading tasks

Can you imagine the whole day without telling lies? 'Yes, of course', most people would answer, but then they've probably forgotten all those little lies that are said so easily - 'This is delicious'. 'You look lovely in that shirt. 'I'd love to come with you etc. Lying is a way of making life run more smoothly.

We are told not to lie from the moment we learn how to do it. According to psychologist Richard Wiseman, this is at the age of about four when children realize they can deceive people. We are not born liars. In childhood, the line between imagination and lying is often not clear. Children are praised for creative imagination but generally criticized for hiding the truth.

As adults we have definite ideas about which kind of lies are OK and which are not. Very often the reason for the lie is the important thing in accepting or rejecting the lie.

Generally speaking there are three types of lies, and liars. The first sort of liar wants to please people, the second wants to protect him or herself, the third sort doesn't care about other people and lies to get what he or she wants.

If someone is fishing for compliments and you tell them what they want to hear, you probably think it's a 'kind' lie. However, you get something as a result of this lie - affection, friendship, peace and quiet. When you lie for self-protection, the reason is clearer. To explain your lateness, you tell your boss the train was cancelled not that you overslept. You cannot be blamed for being late, because you are not responsible for the 'behaviour' of the train and the consequences. The third sort of lie could be more dangerous. It is, for example, the kind that people tell in order to climb up the ladder at work without caring who gets hurt in the process.

But what about being lied to? Can you spot when someone is telling you a lie? Apparently there are some verbal clues lots of ahs and liars take longer to answer a question. They also speak faster but don't always give the details. And then there's body language. Experts say there are certain things that can help identify someone who's not telling the truth. Speaking through their fingers and putting the hands over the face is one. Playing with their hair or clothes and being unable to stay still for any length of time is another. But the truth of the matter is that we all lie at some time and if anyone tells you they don't they're lying.

Post-reading tasks

affection a) protection b) pretence c) love d) apprehension

a clue a) a key b) an offer c) reaction d) assumption

to spot a) to search b) to specify c) to define d) to detect

to blame a) to ignore b) to praise c) to object d) consider responsible

4. Speak on the following points using words and expressions given.

1. The attitude of adults to the children telling lies (bad habit, deceive people, lies and imagination, to criticize, to praise for imagination).

2. Lies and compliments –any difference? (to tell compliments, a kind lie, to gain affection and friendship, to make life easier, to fish for compliments).

3. It is quite possible to identify liers (body language, verbal clues, to spot, unable to stay still, to play with the hair, to speak fast).

4. Lies egoists and ambitious people might tell (dangerous, to get a promotion, not to be blamed, not to care about other people).

UNIT XX

Key words and expressions: mobile phone revolution, rise of sales, to transform life, to spend much time on the phone, innovations, to generate a new type of language, the rich and the poor, drawbacks.

Pre-reading tasks

No consumer product in history has caught on as quickly as the mobile phone, global sales of which have risen from six million in 1991 to more than 500 million a year now. The arrival of the mobile phone has transformed our lifestyles so much that men now spend more time on the phone than women, according to the results of our special opinion poll.

The survey found that men with mobile phones (72% of all men) spend more than an hour a day making calls on an average weekday. The average man spends sixty-six minutes on his landline or his mobile, compared with fifty-three minutes before the mobile phone revolution. But the poll reveals that, while men are using their phones a lot more, women are actually spending less time on the phone. Slightly fewer women (67%) have a mobile phone, and the survey shows that the average amount of time they spend on the phone on a weekday has gone down from sixty-three minutes before they got a mobile to fifty-five minutes now. The explanation might lie in the fact that men love to play with techno toys while women may be more conscious of the bills they are running up.

Innovation in mobile phones has been happening so fast that it's difficult for consumers to change their behaviour. Phones are constantly swallowing up other products like cameras, calculators, clocks, radios, and digital music players. There are twenty different products that previously might have been bought separately that can now be part of a mobile phone. Mobiles have changed the way people talk to one another, they have generated a new type of language, they have saved lives and become style icons.

Obviously, the rich have been buying phones faster than the poor. But this happens with every innovation. Mobile phone take-up among the poor has actually been far quicker than it was in the case of previous products, such as colour television, computers and Internet access. Indeed, as mobile phones continue to become cheaper and more powerful, they might prove to be more successful in bridging the gap between the rich and the poor than expensive computers.

There are obviously drawbacks to mobiles as well: mobile users are two and a half times more likely to develop cancer in areas of the brain adjacent to their phone ear, although researchers are unable to prove whether this has anything to do with the phone; mobile thefts now account for a third of all street robberies in London, and don't forget about all the accidents waiting to happen as people drive with a mobile in one hand. But, overall mobile phones have proved to be a big benefit for people.

Post-reading tasks

conscious a) concerned b) well-informed c) honest d) reasonable

swallow up a) enclose b) destroy c) absorb d) eat

gap a) discrepancy b) disagreement c) variety d) barrier

to account for a) to calculate b) to consider c) to state d) to explain

2. According to the opinion poll, women

a) spend less time on the phone than they used to.

b) like to play with their mobile phones.

c) spend more time on the phone than men.

3. According to the text, mobile phones

a) are modified too fast.

b) are incorporated into cameras.

c) can now replace any other product.

4. Among the poor, the demand for mobile phones

a) has created more of a gap with the rich.

b) follows the pattern of some similar innovations.

c) has grown faster than the demand for computers.

Advantages: to change lifestyle, to save lives, more quickly, innovations, cheaper, even the poor, more powerful.

Drawbacks: bills, to transform life, to become addicts, lack of real communication, likely to develop cancer, thefts of mobiles, road accidents.

PART 3

UNIT XXI

Key words and expressions: to bear in mind, an experienced traveler, to travel abroad, the ignorance of the habits, according to one’s notions, to touch the pride of people.

Though recent years have witnessed a great improvement, it must be confessed that many people still betray woeful ignorance of the veriest rudiments of the art of travelling abroad. One should bear in mind that one cannot reasonably expect the manners of the people among whom one is staying to be altered for one's particular benefit, and that it is not the nationality which makes the gentleman, but his actions.

Wherever you decide to go, it is sensible, unless you are an experienced traveller, to consult some friend who has been there before as to the kind of climate you may expect, the kind and quantity of clothes you will need and to get any advice he may be able to give you in general which may add to the ease and comfort of your trip. Your friend will not be at all bored by the questions as there are few topics more welcome to anyone who has "been there before!"

When travelling abroad it is odious perpetually to be instituting comparisons. It is discourteous to those with whom you may be temporary thrown; and it detracts from your own comfort and pleasure. You may dislike this, that, or the other thing, but all the grumbling in the world is not likely to alter it. The matter complained about may, and very likely does, exactly suit the taste of the foreigner, and as he prefers his own taste to yours, you must either accept it or remain in your own country. What is more, by grumbling you display your ignorance of the habits and customs of foreign countries. The true traveller, if dining on salt fish in Iceland, would never tell the Icelanders that roast beef is better, whatever he might think.

And this attitude should apply to everything. The women may not dress so tastefully, according to your notions, as your sisters or daughters at home. The men may be too noisy or too quiet. The houses may be ridiculously inconvenient, or clumsily built. No matter wherein lies the difference, institute no comparisons. Remember you are in a strange country, where you must expect to see strange things. Be especially careful not to say or do anything that will touch the pride of the people, or show disrespect of their religion.

Remember too, that, though in some respects the comparisons you may be mentally drawing may be flattering to your own country, the reverse will be true, over and over again if you study things dispassionately.

Post-reading tasks

To betray

a) be disloyal

b) be evidence or symptom of

c) to accept

benefit

a) quality

b) an advantage

c) a loss

ease

a) comfort

b) freedom from constraint

c) a trouble

to institute

a) to establish

b) to appoint

c) to study

clumsy

a) awkward in shape

b) strange

c) difficult

5. Now that you have read the text choose the title of the text from the ones given below.

a) Being a tourist is a difficult job.

b) The art of travelling abroad.

c) Pros and cons of travelling abroad.

UNIT XXII

Key words and expressions: a high security area, a data base entry, a PIN, a digital file, to record iris-scanning.

Shock Tactics

The advanced laser gun is an electric stun gun which allows police to deal with violent people without causing injury or death, h has a laser sight to make sure the suspect is properly targeted. It uses a compressed air cartridge to fire two darts at the suspect. The darts pull behind them fine electric cable. They can penetrate the thickest clothing, up to 5 centimetres, at a range of 6.4 metres. When the darts hit someone, the gun delivers a 50,600 volt shock for five seconds. The shock causes temporary paralysis. "Laser waves, electrical signals, cause the suspect's muscles to contract. The guns contain a microchip which records the date and time of each firing.

The iris is the coloured ring round the central part of your eye. Each one is different, which makes it perfect for security systems such as Iris-scanning. First, your iris is scanned and the information converted to a digital file which is stored in a database. This process lakes about three minutes. When you go to a high security area, you simply look at a camera which scans your iris. The result is compared with your database entry. It takes just over a second to complete the check. The system is used at airports to speed passengers through passport control and to control entry to restricted areas. Some banks use it at ATM machines instead of PINs. Apart from the speed, the advantage is that users don't need to remember a password or key. This system can handle users wearing glasses, contact lenses, and also changes to the eye as people age. So far, it's foolproof.

Offender tracking consists of a small tracking unit worn on the belt or ankle. It uses the technology of Global positioning system (GPS) to record the wearer's movements. This data is fed to a server which matches movements with places. Some offenders are restricted to an area around their home. If they move outside that area, this is reported by email to the police. Some offenders are forbidden to enter certain areas. If they go there, this is reported automatically to the police. The system also contains details of crimes. If an offender is near the scene of a crime at the right time, a report is sent directly to the police.

Post-reading tasks

1. To stun a) to go into/through

2. To penetrate b) to deal with

3. To cause c) to shock completely

4. To handle d) to induce

5. To match e) to be equal

1. A laser gun is able to … .

2. The system of iris-scanning is widely used in … .

3. GPS is the technology applied for … .

4. Laser guns contain … .

5. The system of iris scanning is used in … .

6. Offender tracking uses the technology … .

1. The suspect is properly targeted. A laser gun has a laser sight.

2. The date and the time of firing are recorded. The laser gun contains a microchip.

3. The iris is scanned. The information is stored in a database.

4. Users do not need remember password or key. This system has one more advantage.

5. Offender tracking uses GPS. His movements are recorded.

6. Offenders move outside the restricted area. This is reported to the police.

1. The process of scanning one’s iris takes about three minutes.

2. A compressed air cartridge with two darts allows police to deal with violent people.

3. This system is used at airports to speed passengers through passport control.

4. GPS is used during offender’s tracking.

5. If offenders break the borders of the restricted area it is immediately reported to the police.

UNIT XXIII

Key words and expressions: an active ingredient, lung cancer, passive smoking, to underestimate the danger.

Pre-reading tasks

Before reading the text answer the questions.

The Risks of Cigarette Smoke

Discovered in the early 1800s and named nicotianine, the oily essence now called nicotine is the main active ingredient of tobacco. Nicotine, however, is only a small component of cigarette smoke, which contains more than 4,700 chemical compounds, including 43 cancer-causing substances. In recent times, scientific research has been providing evidence that years of cigarette smoking vastly increases the risk of developing fatal medical conditions.

In addition to being responsible for more than 85 per cent of lung cancers, smoking is associated with cancers of, amongst others, the mouth, stomach and kidneys, and is thought to cause about 14 per cent of leukemia and cervical cancers. In 1990, smoking caused more than 84,000 deaths, mainly resulting from such problems as pneumonia, bronchitis and influenza. Smoking, it is believed, is responsible for 30 per cent of all deaths from cancer and clearly represents the most important preventable cause of cancer in countries like the United States today.

Passive smoking, the breathing in of the side-stream smoke from the burning of tobacco between puffs or of the smoke exhaled by a smoker, also causes a serious health risk, A report published in 1992 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emphasized the health dangers, especially from side-stream smoke. This type of smoke contains more, smaller particles and is therefore more likely to be deposited deep in the lungs. On the basis of this report, the EPA has classified environmental tobacco smoke in the highest risk category for causing cancer.

This report emphasizes that cancer is not caused by a single element in cigarette smoke; harmful effects to health are caused by many components. Carbon monoxide, for example, competes with oxygen in red blood cells and interferes with the blood's ability to deliver oxygen to the heart. Nicotine and other toxins in cigarette smoke activate small blood cells called platelets, which increases the likelihood of blood clots, thereby affecting blood circulation throughout the body.

The researchers criticize the practice of some scientific consultants who work with the tobacco industry for assuming that cigarette smoke has the same impact on smokers as it does on non-smokers. They argue that those scientists are underestimating the damage done by passive smoking and, in support of their recent findings, cite some previous research which points to passive smoking as the cause for between 30,000 and 60,000 deaths from heart attacks each year in the United States. This means that passive smoking is the third most preventable cause of death after active smoking and alcohol-related diseases.

Post-reading tasks

1. Breath in a) link

2. Essence b) basis

3. Main c) substance

4. Fatal d) inhale

5. Associate e) friend

1. Cigarette smoke contains … .

2. Smoking can cause such fatal diseases as … .

3. Passive smoking is … .

4. Among the many components that are harmful to health due to smoking are … .

5. Some scientific consultants working with the tobacco industry are criticized for assuming that … .

1. Nicotine is the main component of cigarette smoke.

2. Smoking is connected with many types of cancer.

3. Passive smoking is not harmful to one’s health.

4. Other components of cigarette smoke are also responsible for many health disorders.

5. Passive smoking is a preventable cause of death.

1. Smoking is responsible not only for lung cancer but also for developing many other diseases.

2. It is worth mentioning that some scientists underestimate the damage done by passive smoking.

3. Many other elements such as carbon monoxide harmfully affect health.

4. Nicotine, the oily essence, is the main ingredient of tobacco.

5. Passive smoking contains much smaller particles which are deposited deep in the lungs thus causing cancer.

6. Medical evidence proves that cigarette smoking is the cause of developing fatal diseases.

UNIT XXIV

Key words and expressions: a homogeneous unit, corporate clothing, hierarchy, to market communication, visual cues, a dress style, to size up.

Pre-reading tasks

Answer the questions.

1. The way they look at you.

2. Their job or who they work for.

3. The way they dress.

4. The way they shake hands or greet you.

5. The way they speak.

First Impressions Count

Traditionally uniforms were - and for some industries still are - manufactured to protect the worker. When they were first designed. it is also likely that all uniforms made symbolic sense - those for the military, for example, were originally intended to impress and even terrify the enemy; other uniforms denoted a hierarchy - chefs wore white because they worked with flour, but the main chef wore a black hat to show he supervised.

The last 30 years, however, have seen an increasing emphasis on their role in projecting the image of an organization and in uniting the workforce into a homogeneous unit - particularly in 'customer facing' industries, and especially in financial services and retailing. From uniforms and workwear has emerged 'corporate clothing'. "The people you employ are your ambassadors," says Peter Griffin, managing director of a major retailer in the UK. "What they say, how they look, and how they behave is terribly important." The result is a new way of looking at corporate workwear. From being a simple means of identifying who is a member of staff, the uniform is emerging as a new channel of marketing communication.

Truly effective marketing through visual cues such as uniforms is a subtle art, however. Wittingly or unwittingly, how we look sends all sorts of powerful subliminal messages to other people. Dark colours give an aura of authority while lighter pastel shades suggest approachability. Certain dress style creates a sense of conservatism, others a sense of openness to new ideas. Neatness can suggest efficiency but if it is overdone, it can spill over and indicate an obsession with power. "If the company is selling quality, then it must have quality uniforms. If it is selling style, its uniforms must be stylish. If it wants to appear innovative, everybody can't look exactly the same. Subliminally we see all these things," says Lynn Elvy, a director of image consultants House of Colour.

But translating corporate philosophies into the right mix of colour, style, degree of branding and uniformity can be a fraught process. And it is not always successful. According to Company Clothing magazine, there are 1000 companies supplying the workwear and corporate clothing market. Of these, 22 account for 85% of total sales - £380 million in 1994.

A successful uniform needs to balance two key sets of needs. On the one hand, no uniform will work if staff feel uncomfortable or ugly. Giving the wearers a choice has become a key element in the way corporate clothing is introduced and managed. On the other, it is pointless if the look doesn't express the business's marketing strategy. The greatest challenge in this respect is time. When it comes to human perceptions, first impressions count. Customers will size up the way staff look in just a few seconds, and that few seconds will colour their attitudes from then on. Those few seconds can be so important that big companies are prepared to invest years, and millions of pound; getting them right.

Post-reading tasks

1. Subtle a) promoting revealing some features

2. Subliminal b) difficult to explain, very delicate

3. Branding c) applying a specific name to the goods made by one manufacturer

4. Projecting d) below the consciousness of the senses

1. Initially uniforms were manufactured for different purposes such as … .

2. ”Corporate clothing” emerged from … .

3. Dark colours and pastel shades suggest … correspondingly.

4. A uniform will work if … .

5. It will take customers a few seconds … .

1. Different colours, neatness, dress styles of uniform wearers send all sorts of powerful subliminal messages to other people.

2. From the very beginning uniforms meant different things.

3. Those few seconds of customers’ sizing up the staff make big companies invest years and millions of pounds in uniforms.

4. Uniforms were initially produced to protect workers.

5. Special way of saying, looking and behaving of people in uniforms creates a new channel of marketing communication.

UNIT XXV

Key words and expressions: space travel, exploration of the universe, a reaction principle, to date back, to credit, to propel rockets.

The Rocket - From East to West

The concept of the rocket, or rather the mechanism behind the idea of propelling an object into the air, has been around for well over two thousand years. However, it wasn't until the discovery of the reaction principle, which was the key to space travel and so represents one of the great milestones in the history of scientific thought, that rocket technology was able to develop. Not only did it solve a problem that had intrigued man for ages, but, more importantly, it literally opened the door to exploration of the universe.

An intellectual breakthrough, brilliant though it may be, does not automatically ensure that the transition is made from theory to practice. Despite the fact that rockets had been used sporadically for several hundred years, they remained a relatively minor artifact of civilisation until the twentieth century. Prodigious efforts, accelerated during two world wars, were required before the technology of primitive rocketry could be translated into the reality of sophisticated astronauts. It is strange that the rocket was generally ignored by writers of fiction to transport their heroes to mysterious realms beyond the Earth, even though it had been commonly used in fireworks displays in China since the thirteenth century. The reason is that nobody associated the reaction principle with the idea of travelling through space to a neighbouring world.

A simple analogy can help us to understand how a rocket operates. It is much like a machine gun mounted on the rear of a boat. In reaction to the backward discharge of bullets, the gun, and hence the boat, move forwards. A rocket motor's 'bullets' are minute, high-speed particles produced by burning propellants in a suitable chamber. The reaction to the ejection of these small particles causes the rocket to move forwards. There is evidence that the reaction principle was applied practically well before the rocket was invented. In his Nodes Atticae or Greek Nights, Aulus Gellius describes 'the pigeon of Archytas1, an invention dating back to about 360 ВС. Cylindrical in shape, made of wood, and hanging from string, it was moved to and fro by steam blowing out from small exhaust ports at either end. The reaction to the discharging steam provided the bird with motive power.

The invention of rockets is linked inextricably with the invention of 'black powder'. Most historians of technology credit the Chinese with its discovery. They base their belief on studies of Chinese writings or on the notebooks of early Europeans who settled in or made long visits to China to study its history and civilisation. It is probable that, some time in the tenth century, black powder was first compounded from its basic ingredients of saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur. But this does not mean that it was immediately used to propel rockets. By the thirteenth century, powder-propelled fire arrows had become rather common. The Chinese relied on this type of technological development to produce incendiary projectiles of many sorts, explosive grenades and possibly cannons to repel their enemies. One such weapon was the 'basket of fire' or, as directly translated from Chinese, the 'arrows like flying leopards'. The 0.7 metre-long arrows, each with a long tube of gunpowder attached near the point of each arrow, could be fired from a long, octagonal-shaped basket at the same time and had a range of 400 paces. Another weapon was the 'arrow as a flying sabre1, which could be fired from crossbows. The rocket, placed in a similar position to other rocket-propelled arrows, was designed to increase the range. A small iron weight was attached to the 1.5m bamboo shaft, just below the feathers, to increase the arrow's stability by moving the centre of gravity to a position below the rocket. At a similar time, the Arabs had developed the 'egg which moves and burns'. This 'egg' was apparently full of gunpowder and stabilized by a 1.5m tail. It was fired using two rockets attached to either side of this tail.

Post-reading tasks

1. To propel a) to make up

2. An artifact b) setting on fire of property

3. Incendiary c) to push forward

4. Sophisticated d) a product of prehistoric art

5. To compound e) a straight shot from bow

6. An arrow f) highly developed

1. The reaction principle not only contributed to the development of but also … .

2. The invention of rockets is closely … .

3. At first black powder composed of … .

4. The rocket … … by writers of fiction though … .

1. Rockets remained a minor artifact of civilization. They had been used from time to time for several hundred years.

2. Nobody associated the reaction principle with travelling through space. It was used in rockets.

3. Burning propellants produce high-speed particles. This reaction causes the rocket to move forwards.

4. The rocket range increases. It is placed in a specific position to other rocket-propelled arrows.

1. The way a rocket operates can be compared with that of a machine gun mounted on the rear of a boat.

2. Most historians of technology credit the Chinese with the discovery of “black powder”.

3. The reaction principle has become the key to space travel.

4. It took time for the technology of rocketry to be translated into the reality of astronautics.

5. The Chinese relying on “black powder” produced incendiary projectiles of many sorts.

UNIT XXVI

Key words and expressions: breed, prevent from, species, a fly, a residue, a fertilizer, decompose, deprive of.

Pre-reading tasks

Before reading the text say if you know what the Russian equivalent of the saying “Blind as a beetle” means. Why the word “beetle” is the key word?

A Remarkable Beetle

Some of the most remarkable beetles are the dung beetles, which spend almost their whole lives eating and breeding in dung.

In the early 1960s George Bornemissza, then a scientist at the Australian Government's premier research organisation, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), suggested that dung beetles should be introduced to Australia to control dung-breeding flies.

Introducing dung beetles into a pasture is a simple process: approximately 1,500 beetles are released, a handful at a time, into fresh cow pats in the cow pasture. The beetles immediately disappear beneath the pats digging and tunnelling and, if they successfully adapt to their new environment, soon become a permanent, self-sustaining part of the local ecology. In time they multiply and within three or four years the benefits to the pasture are obvious. In the late 1960s they were introduced with a view to controlling buffalo flies by removing the dung within a day or two and so preventing flies from breeding. However, other benefits have become evident. Once the beetle larvae have finished pupation, the residue is a first-rate source of fertiliser. The tunnels abandoned by the beetles provide excellent aeration and water channels for root systems. In addition, when the new generation of beetles has left the nest the abandoned burrows are an attractive habitat for soil-enriching earthworms. The digested dung in these burrows is an excellent food supply for the earthworms, which decompose it further to provide essential soil nutrients. If it were not for the dung beetle, chemical fertiliser and dung would be washed by rain into streams and rivers before it could be absorbed into the hard earth, polluting water courses and causing blooms of blue-green algae. Without the beetles to dispose of the dung, cow pats would litter pastures making grass inedible to cattle and depriving the soil of sunlight.

Dung beetles have become an integral part of the successful management of dairy farms in Australia over the past few decades.

Post-reading tasks

1. Larva a) a substance that provides nourishment for the maintenance of life

2. Breed b) improve the quality or value of

3. Benefit c) an active immature form of an insect or other animal

4. Abandon d) develop a variety of plant or animal

5. Habitat e) an advantage or profit from something

6. Nutrient f) natural home or environment of an organism

7. Integral g) leave behind

8. Enrich h) necessary to make a whole complete

1. The beetles immediately disappear beneath the cow pats. Approximately 1500 beetles are released.

2. In the late 1960s the beetles were introduced. It was necessary to prevent flies from breeding.

3. The new generation of beetles leaves the nest. The abandoned burrows become an attractive habitat for soil – enriching earthworms.

4. Chemical fertilizer and dung would be washed by rain into rivers. The beetles were not introduced.

5. The beetles didn’t dispose of the dung. Cow pats would litter pastures and make grass inedible.

1. The dung beetles are known for … .

2. Controlling dung-breeding flies resulted in … .

3. Having adapted to new environment the dung beetles start … .

4. Apart from being a first-rate source of fertilizer the pastures … .

5. The abandoned by beetles burrows become … .

6. If the dung beetles didn’t nest on pastures … .

1. The beetles immediately disappear beneath the pats and tunneling.

2. Chemical fertilizer and dung would be washed by rain into streams and rivers if it were not for the dung beetle.

3. Dung beetles were introduced into farming in the early 1960s to control dung-breeding flies.

4. There are some evident benefits of using dung beetles.

5. If the beetles didn’t dispose of the dung cow pats would litter pastures and grass inedible to cattle.

UNIT XXVII

Key words and expressions: to lack, to cause, depressed, exposure, fluorescent, to be exposed to, a mood, melatonin.

Pre-reading tasks

Look at the title of the text and guess what the text is about.

Highs and Lows

Hormone levels - and hence our moods - may be affected by the weather. Gloomy weather can depression, but sunshine appears to raise the spirits. In Britain, for example, the dull weather of winter drastically cuts down the amount of sunlight that expended which strongly affects some people. They become so depressed and lacking m energy that is work and social life are affected. This condition has been given the name SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder). Sufferers can fight back by making the most of any sunlight in winter and by spending a few hours each day under special, full-spectrum lamps. These provide more ultraviolet and blue-green light than ordinary fluorescent and tungsten lights. Some Russian scientists claim that children learn better after being exposed to ultraviolet light. In warm countries, hours of work are often arranged so that workers can take a break, or even a siesta, during the hottest part of the day Scientists are working to discover the links between the weather and human beings' moods and performance.

It is generally believed that tempers grow shorter in hot, muggy weather. There is no doubt that 'crimes against the person' rise in the summer, when the weather is hotter and fall in the winter when the weather is colder. Research in the United States has shown a relationship between temperature and street riots. The frequency of riots rises dramatically as the weather gets warmer, hitting a peak around 27-30°C. But is this effect really due to a mood change caused by the heat? Some scientists argue that trouble starts more often in hot weather merely because there are more people in the street when the weather is good. Psychologists have also studied how being cold affects performance. Researchers compared divers working in icy cold water at 5°C with others in water at 20°C (about swimming pool temperature). The colder water made the divers worse at simple arithmetic and other mental tasks.

Psychologists have conducted studies showing that people become less sceptical and more optimistic when the weather is sunny. However, this apparently does not just depend on the temperature. An American psychologist studied customers in a temperature-controlled restaurant. They gave bigger tips when the sun was shining and smaller tips when it wasn't, even though the temperature in the restaurant was the same. A link between weather and mood is made believable by the evidence for a connection between behavior and the length of the daylight hours. This in turn might involve the level of a hormone called melatonin, produced in the pineal gland in the brain. The amount of melatonin falls with greater exposure to daylight. Research shows that melatonin plays an important part in the seasonal behaviour of certain animals. For example, food consumption of stags increases during the winter, reaching a peak in February/March. It falls again to a low point in May, then rises to a peak in September, before dropping to another minimum in November. These changes seem to be triggered by varying melatonin levels.

Post-reading tasks

Look through the text to see if your guess was right. Is the head misleading?

1. Gloomy a) have none or insufficient of

2. Depression b) disturbance of the peace

3. Lack c) miserable

4. Performance d) oppressively damp and warm

5. Muggy e) mood of hopelessness

6. Riot f) carrying out, doing

1. Gloomy weather can be the reason for … .

2. To avoid SAD sufferers are recommended to ... .

3. Research in the United States has shown the higher is the temperature … .

4. Customers in a temperature-controlled restaurant give bigger tips when  .

5. The amount of melatonin depends on … .

1. Divers perform much worse when they work in cool water.

2. The frequency of street riots rises dramatically as the weather gets warmer.

3. Melanin plays an important part in the seasonal behavior of certain animals.

4. The dull weather of winter reduces the amount of sunlight which affects some people.

5. Some people need exposing the light of full-spectrum lamps.

UNIT XXVIII

Key words and expressions: to dump, to dispose of, recycle, sewage, wasteful, rubbish, to pollute, nuclear waste, poisonous, to produce.

Dumping or Disposal

We often talk about waste disposal, but disposal is really the wrong word, because you cannot really dispose of waste. Suppose that you put your waste on a rubbish dump. You have dumped it, but you have not disposed of it.

If you want to do something better than dumping, you can change waste into something different. For example, you can burn it. This will produce heat, which may be useful, but it may also produce poisonous smoke and gases, which are another kind of waste.

Better still, you can change waste into something useful. This is called recycling. For example, old newspapers can be made into new paper.

Industry - making things for people to use - produces a lot of waste. Some industrial waste is just dirty, but some is actually dangerous. Some factories, for example, produce poisonous gases which go up into the air and then make acid rain which kills trees and pollutes water.

Sometimes toxic chemicals leak into rivers, polluting the water and killing fish and other animals. Toxic chemicals can also pollute the ground. In the USA in the 1930s, a chemical factory dumped a large number of big metal drums of waste chemicals in a hole in the ground. Later a builder covered the place with earth and built a small town called Love Canal there. In the 1970s the drums began to leak into the earth. The trees died. The ground was covered with a horrible, smelly, black slime which burned holes in people's shoes. Everybody had to leave Love Canal.

Later eighty-two different toxic chemicals were found in the earth.

There are billions of old tyres on dumps all over the world. Some years ago, fourteen million tyres on a dump in Canada caught fire. The fire burned for two weeks. The burning tyres produced a black, oily smoke and toxic gases, and left behind a poisonous black slime.

Power stations produce electricity for homes and shops, schools and factories. Many power stations also produce smoke, toxic gases, mountains of dirty black waste and acid rain. When nuclear power stations were first built, many people were pleased because they did not pollute like the old power stations. But nuclear power stations produce nuclear waste, which produces radiation. You cannot see or smell radiation, but it is very toxic - and it stays like that for thousands of years. You cannot easily dispose of nuclear waste. Until we discover a good way of disposing of nuclear waste we will have to live with this dangerous problem.

Waste from farms is a serious problem too. Farm animals produce a lot of dung. The chemicals from the dung can leak into the earth and poison it. They can also leak into rivers and poison the water.

Aeroplanes and cars, boats and buses produce poisonous gases which pollute the air. They also make a lot of noise, which is another kind of pollution. Perhaps the best answer to this problem is a quiet, clean bicycle!

People at home produce waste too, and rich countries are more wasteful than poor ones. Every day New York produces more than 24,000 tonnes of waste and a lot of it is sent by sea to dumps thousands of miles away.

Waste from toilets is called sewage. Millions of tonnes of sewage are dumped in the sea every year. The sewage pollutes the water, poisons fish and covers the beaches with brown slime.

Post-reading tasks

1. Throw away a) to escape from a container

2. Slime b) a material which is used in science

3. Leak c) wet in an unpleasant way

4. Pollution d) to dispose of something as if it is not wanted

5. Chemical e) making things dirty and/or dangerous

6. Waste f) something which is superfluous, unwanted or rejected

7. Dump g) getting rid of

8. Disposal h) place for depositing refuse

1. The process of … waste is called recycling.

2. Toxic chemicals leak into river thus … .

3. The burning tyres produced … .

4. Nuclear power stations produce … .

5. Some rich countries use poor countries … .

1. You burn waste. Poisonous smoke and gases are produced.

2. Drums of waste chemicals were dumped in the ground. The ground was covered with smelly black slime.

3. People were pleased when nuclear power stations were built. They didn’t pollute.

4. Radiation is very toxic. It stays like that for thousands of years.

5. Our waste will continue poisoning the environment. We do not do anything with waste.

1. Billions of tyres on dumps are burned regularly and oily smoke and toxic gases are produced.

2. The noise of flying aeroplanes is another kind of pollution.

3. Big metal drums dumped in the ground caused a disaster in the USA in the 1930s.

4. Waste from toilets pollutes the water poisons fish and covers the beaches with brown slime.

5. To dispose of waste completely is to change it into something useful.

UNIT XXIX

Key words and expressions: to be in search of, a surfboard, to tour, to learn the technique, to catch a wave, to surf, to experience.

Surfs up!

Riding the waves can be the thrill of a lifetime. But what does it take to become a surfer?

If you have ever dreamt about incredibly big seas with huge powerful waves crashing onto sandy beaches, then you should definitely think about learning to surf. It's the most exciting watersport fee- is. Serious surfers must be very brave, love adventure and have lots of energy. Once they've experienced the excitement of a ride on top of the waves, they never want to stop.

Surfers say they feel it's the only place to be. Many travel around the world searching for the perfect wave, moving from one surf festival to another and checking weather forecasts to see where the really exciting waves are expected next. Some even carry pagers which beep when there are weather reports of perfect conditions. A surfer's greatest disappointment would be missing the opportunity to surf in the best weather conditions.

Hawaii is where the sport began - the place which most surfers see as their "true home". They love nature and the excitement you get from the deep waters. Enormous waves crash along mile after mile of beautiful sand, and every surfer dreams of experiencing surfing in Maui or Oahu. Other great surfing locations include Australia, the west coast of the U.S., the Caribbean, Brazil, Japan, Hong Kong, South Africa, the Canary Islands, and Cornwall. Experienced surfers are always in search of the best waves in some totally unspoilt paradise that hardly anyone has heard of.

It takes time for a beginner to learn the technique, but during a long hot summer, who minds practising? The professionals, of course, are in the sea every day, then come back onto the beach to do some exercises with weights. You need to be a strong swimmer with good balance and plenty of courage to be an expert surfer.

You can surf almost anywhere in any weather if you are wearing a wet suit. All you need to do then is choose a surfboard and you're ready to go - hopefully into big waves that are warm, with an experienced teacher to lead you. You don't need to wear a wet suit in summer, but many surfers keep them on all the time since they can protect you from the hot sun as well as from cold water.

It can take a few weeks or it can take a whole summer for you to learn to catch a wave at the right moment, stand up on your board and stay there. It's an amazing feeling when you look down and see your feet on the board and realize you are finally standing up on the sea, even if you aren't very steady. Professional surfers look as if they learned to surf as soon as they could walk. For example, Shane Powell, an Australian professional, watched videos of Australian surfing heroes like Peter Townsend, Barton Lynch and Tom Carroll as he was growing up. He says, "As a boy I'd watch those surfers and just imagine myself riding the waves." Powell seems to move over the sea without any difficulty. He first practised on small waves, but clearly had talent. By the age of 17 he was touring with the world's best surfers, and now, at 23, he practises every day and an even younger generation of surfers study videos of him in action.

Simply watching great surfers will make you want to try the sport. If you do try it, you'll find muscles you never knew you had; you may begin to think you might never get it right, but you'll have a lot of fun.

Post-reading tasks

1. To ride a) to actually observe or be practically acquainted with

2. To crash b) to sit, to go, to be on smth

3. A beep c) an event resulting in distress

4. To experience d) to collide violently with obstacle

5. A disappointment e) a sound of motor-car horn

6. A balance f) a steady position

1. True surfers must be … .

2. Hawaii is the place … .

3. It takes time for a beginner … .

4. To be a good surfer means … .

5. It’s an amazing feeling … .

1. Surfers check weather forecasts. There places where really exciting waves are expected.

2. A beginner should learn a technique of surfing. One wants to be a good surfer.

3. You are wearing a wet suit. You can swim both in warm and cold water.

4. One can learn to catch a wave. It is necessary to spend a few weeks or a whole summer on training.

5. You try to do surfing. You may find muscles you have never felt before.

1. To be a professional surfer one should be a strong swimmer with good balance and a lot of practicing.

2. Many surfers travel round the world searching for perfect waves and checking weather forecasts in order to find really exciting waves.

3. Watching great surfers may make you want to try the sport.

4. Surfing is the most exciting watersport.

5. There are great surfing locations including Brazil, South Africa, Cornwall.

6. Many surfers prefer wearing wet suits irrespective of water temperature.

UNIT XXX

Key words and expressions: a hurricane, a thunderstorm, to originate, a forecaster, to issue, a surge, to stock up on, to hurricane-proof.

Hurricanes

Hurricanes are violent storms that cause millions of dollars in property damage and take many lives. They can be extremely dangerous, and too often people underestimate their fury. Hurricanes normally originate as a small area of thunderstorms over the Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde Islands during August or September. For several days, the area of the storm increases and the air pressure falls slowly. A center of low pressure forms, and winds begin to whirl around it. It is blown westward, increasing in size and strength.

Hurricane hunters then fly out to the storm in order to determine its size and intensity and to track its direction. They drop radiosondes, or instruments for recording temperature, air pressure, and humidity, into the storm. They also look at the size of waves on the ocean, the clouds, and the eye of the storm. The eye is a region of relative calm and clear skies in the center of the hurricane. People often lose their lives by leaving shelter when the eye has arrived, only to be caught in tremendous winds again when the eye has passed.

Once the forecasters have determined that it is likely the hurricane will reach shore, they issue a hurricane watch for a large, general area that may be in the path of the storm. Later, when the probable point of landfall is clearer, they will issue a hurricane warning for a somewhat more limited area. People in these areas are wise to stock up on nonperishable foods, flashlight and radio batteries, candles, and other items they may need if electricity and water are not available after the storm. They should also try to hurricane-proof their houses by bringing in light-weight furniture and other items from outside and covering windows. People living in low-lying areas are wise to evacuate their houses because of the storm surge, which is a large rush of water that may come ashore with the storm.

Hurricanes generally lose power slowly while traveling over land, but many move out to sea, gather up force again, and return to land. As they move toward the north, they generally lose their identity as hurricanes.

Post-reading tasks

1. Damage a) an illuminating device

2. A flashlight b) a storm with violent wind

3. A shelter c) loss of what is desirable

4. A hurricane d) to announce

5. To originate e) a thing serving as barrier

6. To issue f) to cause to begin

1. Hurricanes are severe storms that … .

2. While the hurricanes form … .

3. Those who hunt for hurricanes … .

4. The issued hurricane warning may make people … .

5. Hurricanes travelling over land … .

1. Hurricanes are violent storms. They may take many lives.

2. Hurricane hunters fly out to the storm. They want to measure its size and intensity.

3. Human lives are lost. The eye of the hurricane arrives.

4. The forecasters issue a hurricane warning. The probable point of landfall is clear.

5. The people are warned of a coming hurricane. They try to consume nonperishable foods, use radio batteries and candles.

6. Eventually hurricanes move toward the north. Soon after they are not hurricanes anymore.

1. Hurricane hunters estimate the size and intensity of the hurricane.

2. The more northwards hurricane moves the less violent it becomes.

3. Hurricanes usually originate over the Atlantic Ocean.

4. Being aware of the storm people hurricane-proof their houses, stock up on nonperishable food, radio batteries.

5. People sometimes are misled by the eye of the storm and leaving their shelter they lose their lives.

PART 4

UNIT XXXI

Is Language Unique to Humans?

According to Dr Sue Savage-Rumbaugh at Georgia State University, humans are not the only species capable of language. She carried out an extensive training and testing programme with a bonobo chimpanzee called Kanzi, who, by the age of six, had mastered a vocabulary of 200 words along with a series of meaningful gestures. (Since chimpanzees, like all primates, lack vocal chords, Kanzi was taught to use a keyboard and press symbols as a means of communicating.) The testing also involved commands being given by hidden speakers, so the research team could affirm that Kanzi was not just responding to contextual cues. It was reported that Kanzi responded accurately to 74 per cent of the complex questions that were put to him.

However, there are many who are far from convinced by this research. Among them is linguist Noam Chomsky who believes that only humans possess the innate cognitive ability to both comprehend and produce language. He compares human children with apes: the former learn to speak rapidly and can produce original sentences, but the primates find even the learning of a few words extremely challenging. Furthermore, Chomsky states that the ability to use individual symbols does not equate to the ability to recognize syntax. Cognitive scientist Steven Pinker is also sceptical and believes that Kanzi has merely learnt to behave in a way that will earn him a reward. In another experiment with a chimp called Washoe, his trainers were convinced he was capable of using American Sign Language. But Pinker points lo the fact that a deaf researcher who studied Washoe reported that the chimp was not using sign language, but actually his own set of gestures.

Post-reading tasks

Complete the sentences with words from the text. Write no more than two words for each answer.

UNIT XXXII

Social Customs

How many people, whether on business abroad or merely touring, have unknowingly insulted their clients, hosts, local shopkeepers, or a complete stranger on the bus? A quick read of our guide below will help you to conform to social norms and make a positive impression.

First, behaving in the same way that you would at home can land you in fairly serious trouble. In England, it is standard practice to take wine to a dinner party, but the same does not apply in France. To do so would suggest your host is unable to choose or afford a good bottle. If you are doing business in Turkey, be careful who you speak to first. Age is seen as evidence of wisdom and therefore you should start with the oldest person in the room. Some Turkish people also consider it disrespectful for young people to cross their legs in front of older people, something most westerners wouldn't even think about.

In some countries, your body language may be unwittingly offensive. Do not pat girls or boys on the head in Thailand as this is considered the most sacred part of the body, and make sure the soles of your feet are not on display in Arab countries. It is important to bow lower than your seniors or elders in Japan, and elderly members of Maori tribes in New Zealand would find your bottom resting on a table or desk to be extremely disrespectful.

As for everyday behaviour on the street, if you have a cold, turn away from others and use your tissues discreetly in Germany. Never step over a coin or a note in Thailand. These bear the image of the king and are therefore deserving of respect.

When you are indoors, don't light up in Canada without first asking permission, and in Arab countries, it would be unthinkable to walk into a house with footwear on.

Post-reading tasks

Answer the questions as quickly as possible.

In which country/countries should you

UNIT XXXIII

Super Size Me

In 2004, American independent film-maker Morgan Spurlock released Super Size Me, a feature-length documentary that attacked the fast-food industry and specifically McDonald's. The title comes from McDonald's former policy of encouraging customers to buy the largest size of whatever they ordered from the menu, which Spurlock regarded as one of the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in children and adults sweeping the United States.

The documentary largely took the form of an experiment in which Spurlock aimed to eat only McDonald's food three times a day for thirty days. At the outset of the film, he weighed a healthy 185.51 pounds, but gained 24.5 pounds by the end of the month. During this time, he experienced mood swings, sexual dysfunction, and severe liver damage, to the extent that his doctor insisted he return to a normal diet immediately. Spurlock also suffered depression, lethargy and headaches, and found to his horror that these could be relieved by eating more McDonald's food. In other words, he had become addicted to its high sugar and casein content.

The film was nominated for an Academy Award and was one of the highest-earning documentaries in the US that year. The McDonald's Corporation, however, was not amused and set up a website (www.supersizeme-thedebate.co.uk) to dispute Spurlock's claims. At the same time, it also discontinued its Super Size policy, but denied it had anything to do with the film.

Post-reading tasks

Answer the questions as quickly possible.

UNIT XXXIV

Film

When was the last time you came out of a very successful film and really felt you'd got your money's worth? It's hard not to be disappointed nowadays, since every film receives huge amounts of publicity months before it's released, and inevitably it won't live up to your expectations. Even Hollywood seems to have realized that its best film-making years are over, which is possibly the reason why we seem to be faced with so many remakes recently.

If you're a fan of film, you'll know that King Kong was originally released in 193 3, again in 1976, and once more in 2005. The main female actor puts on a good show, and the big gorilla looks more realistic, but isn't a third form of this story a little excessive? War of the Worlds first terrified audiences in 1953; the budget wouldn't even have covered Tom Cruise's salary in his adaptation last year. The latest remake falls into the thriller-mystery type of film, with Nicolas Cage as the star in The Wicker Man. The location moves from Scotland to somewhere off the Washington coast, and audiences who are too young to remember the 1973 film will still be gripped by the suspense. Nevertheless, professional opinion is that surely there are other stories worthy of the big screen? When you remake a classic, it is easy to guess the result will always be a poor imitation.

Post-reading tasks

Answer the questions.

a) h d) the 1

b) p e) r

с) g … f) p

UNIT XXXV

Fashion

Forget face lifts, breast implants, and Botox injections - the latest trend in New York City is cosmetic toe amputation* surgery. A growing number of New York women are opting for an operation that means they can squeeze their feet into pointy high-heeled shoes, preferably those made by designers Manolo Blahnik or Jimmy Choo. Advocates of the procedure stress the value of height in making the right impression in business and society circles. 'They give a woman that extra confidence in her appearance says New York podiatrist* Dr Fay Miller, who claims to have performed more than fifty 'foot enhancement surgeries.' In fact, the term 'amputation' has misled many would-be patients. The second toe is cut open, part of the bone is removed, and the toe is sewn back up, causing the flesh to shrink. This still seems gruesome, but is not actually whole amputation. Some members of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society deeply oppose this kind of operation, believing it can often result in permanent disability and be excruciating. They would also discourage women from wearing high heels since they can lead to a number of serious problems including knee, pelvic, back, and shoulder pain. Despite their warnings, New York women are continuing to make appointments with Dr Miller. Vanity, it seems, is a strong kind of painkiller.

*amputation = the removal of a part of the body (for example an arm) in a medical operation

*podiatrist = a specialist in the care of feet and the treatment of foot diseases

Post-reading tasks

Answer the questions.

UNIT XXXVI

Controversial Issues

A. At 62, Patricia Rashbrook is so far the oldest woman in Britain to give birth. The healthy baby boy, nicknamed JJ, was conceived through IVF,* after several previously failed attempts. The treatment was carried out by Dr Antinori, an Italian doctor who runs a fertility clinic in Rome. The birth sparked controversy among those in the fertility profession and attracted media attention around the world. JJ was Ms Rashbrook's fourth child; the youngest of the other three was 18 when his new sibling was born. John Farrant, Ms Rashbrook's new husband, told the media that they were well able to meet the child's needs. The couple say that they are in good health, but in the event that they both meet an untimely death, friends have agreed to become surrogate parents.

В. We can divide opinion on this issue into two major camps. Those who are vehemently against older people giving birth say that the parents are only thinking of themselves. They believe that the child will be ashamed of having much older parents as he or she grows up. Furthermore, there is considerable likelihood that the child will be bereaved much sooner in life than is normal. Those in the other camp, however, point to the fact that many children are brought up by grandparents and benefit from this arrangement. Older parents can often offer the child greater financial security and constant devotion. Moreover, they argue that if the government ever started to impose legal restrictions on the types of people who could have children, there is no telling where those restrictions would end.

*IVF = In Vitro Fertilization: the medical process in which a woman's egg is fertilized outside the body and then put back inside to grow into a baby

Post-reading tasks

Paragraph A

Decide if the sentences are True (T), False (F), or if the information is Not Given (NG) in the text.

Paragraph В

UNIT XXXVII

Head off for Your First Work Experience!

Looking for a useful and enjoyable way to try out your new degree or just putting off a nine-to-five job? Why not take a year out to think about it and sign up with VSO (Voluntary Service Overseas), an organization that sends volunteers to help out with community projects in Africa (Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Livelihoods), Asia (Environment, Health and Education), and The Pacific (Rural Development and Empowering Women). If you are seeking adventure and want to do some good at the same time, working alongside an excellent team of like-minded people could be just the experience you are looking for. Both the work and the camaraderie can be extremely rewarding. Accommodation / flights / and visas are provided. Volunteers should be adaptable, open to new cultures and be prepared to work in basic conditions. For more information, come and see Steve Dunn in the Student Union from 9am-12pm Mon-Thurs.

Attention Law Students

The Innocence Project was first established in the United States. It aims to re-examine criminal cases in which a wrongful conviction may have occurred. Participating students are expected to thoroughly analyze witness statements and take a fresh look at evidence, searching for details that the original attorney may have missed. It can be painstaking work, but the Innocence Project has helped people gain both their freedom and compensation for wrongful imprisonment. Furthermore, through studying these cases, you will learn to identify injustices in current legal procedure and see how to correct them. This is unpaid work that requires a commitment of about 16 hours a week, but it is a chance to gain your first real practical experience in the Held of law. Talk to Jane Andrews in the Student Law Office if you are interested.

Post-reading tasks

Which of the following statements applies to which advertisement? Write A for the first advertisement, В for the second advertisement, or A/B for both advertisements.

Which of the words in bold in the text means

UNIT XXXVIII

The Haunted House

For me, most paranormal phenomena can be, or will someday be, explained by science, and I'm extremely sceptical when it comes to ghosts. When people report a haunting, I think they probably experienced a form of hallucination or a hoax. Having said that, when I was about 13 years old, my brother, my mother, and I went to stay with my aunt Christine. Her family lives in a huge country mansion that they bought very cheaply after it had been abandoned for many years. At the time, they lived in one wing of the house and guests stayed in the opposite wing. In between the wings was the middle part of the house, which was just room after dusty room, filled with odd things that my uncle had brought home, like old pianos, broken statues, and rusty clocks. You could explore for the whole day and not bump into anyone else, apart from the occasional peacock that had jumped in through an open window, or a rat that my cousins had tamed. Anyway, the room where I was staying was at the end of a long corridor, and I have to admit that I did feel the atmosphere was a bit spooky. The floors creaked and there was a rocking chair in the room which you always see in horror films! But one night, I suddenly woke up and opened my eyes, thinking my brother had come into the room and was sitting on my legs. I could feel an incredible weight on both of them, but the room was filled with moonlight and I could see nobody was there. I was petrified and just closed my eyes tight and waited for what seemed like an eternity before I felt the weight lift. In the morning, I told my brother, who thought it was absolutely hilarious. My aunt's brother, however, who happened to be visiting, thought differently. He had had exactly the same experience in the same room, and was also at a loss to explain whal had really happened. I know it's not rational, but nothing could persuade me to sleep there again!

Post-reading tasks

Decide if the sentences are True (T), False (F), or if the information is Not Given (NG) in the text.

Translate the words and phrases in bold in the text.

UNIT XXXIX

Survival Tips for the North American Wilderness

Pre-reading tasks

Think of the following.

What to do when you're lost

First of all, stay where you are. There's no point expending energy if you're uncertain which direction to take. Before you set off, make sure you notify someone where you're going, your intended route, and anticipated time of return, so if you do get lost, at least you know a rescue party is on its way. Remain calm. Your priority is to find water and shelter. You can do without food for up to a month, but dehydration will kill you after four days, and hypothermia can take just 24 hours. Look for shelter in a cave or under a fir tree, but avoid very tall trees as they can attract lightning. If you do need to eat, avoid plants as some can be quite poisonous. You're better off eating lizards, frogs, and insects.

What to do if you meet a bear

Don't turn your back and run. You will be behaving just like the bear's regular prey and it will chase you. Bears can also reach speeds of nearly 19 mph, so you have no chance of outrunning it! Heading up a tree is also inadvisable. Black bears are excellent climbers and brown bears may be capable of pushing your escape route over. Instead, look a bear firmly in the eyes and back away slowly. Drop any food you have as a bear will go after anything edible. As you move away, the bear will hopefully wander off, but if it does attack, most experts suggest that you play dead, so that the bear loses interest.

What to do if a snake bites you

Whatever you may have seen in films, do not attempt to suck the poison out as you will simply absorb more venom into your system. The best thing to do is to wash the affected area with soap and water, and leave a damp cloth over it. Remain still and make sure the bite point is lower than your heart. Don't panic, as this will pump the venom round your body faster. If you have a mobile phone, call for medical attention or get someone to seek help.

Post-reading tasks

Guess if the sentences are True or False. Then read the text to check.

UNIT XL

Beloved Pets

When a loved one passes away, it can be hard to accept they are truly gone for ever, and for some, the loved ones are of the furry, four-legged variety. Some animal lovers are content with a private burial in the garden, others may want something a little more ceremonial and prefer a service at a pet cemetery. In the last decade, another option has become available, that of freeze-drying. This process involves the complete removal of liquid from a pet, so that it retains its shape and size. This can take up to four months to complete, depending on the pet's weight. It is then sent back to the owner. Initially, this service was mainly available in the United States. Now, Britain has joined the trend in pet preservation, but in the form of taxidermy. In fact, the resurrection of interest in this form of preservation is so great that the few taxidermists still practising cannot cope with demand. For the layperson, taxidermy means 'stuffing dead animals' and brings to mind dusty collections of exotic creatures in museums. For the professional taxidermist, theirs is an art form that also requires a genuine interest in wildlife. When they begin work on a subject, they must not only sculpt a body from wood or, in the case of large animals, fibreglass (the animal's skin is then stretched over this frame), but they must position the animal in a convincing pose, and they can only do this by knowing how it moved in life. The subjects, by the way, have all met natural deaths or been killed in road accidents, as British law prevents endangered species from reaching the taxidermist's table.

Post-reading tasks

Answer the question.

What is the main point of the text?

Complete the sentences with one or two words from the text.

UNIT XLI

The Sonic Teenager Deterrent

If you're out with a group of people, but you're the only one who can hear an unbearable high-pitched noise and it's driving you crazy, the chances are that you're the only person under 20. And if you're out late at night and congregating around a shop or in a car park, the chances are even higher that what you're hearing is the Sonic Teenager Deterrent, a gadget specifically designed to drive young trouble makers away. Unfortunately, the Mosquito, as it's otherwise known, makes no distinction between well-behaved teens and those in gangs. The under 20s all have the capacity to hear high-frequency band widths and 90 per cent of older people do not. The Mosquito is a remote-controlled device that comes packaged in a small black box and emits bursts of pulsing sounds that are effective more than 20 yards away. It is the brainchild of Howard Stapleton, who was once an electronics apprentice at British Aerospace. Stapleton created it after becoming fed up with local youths who were intimidating customers at his local shop. His four children were his original guinea pigs, and Stapleton knew his invention worked when they clutched their ears and ran away. Now that it has been bought by hundreds of shopowners and several local authorities, the Mosquito is tormenting many other teens who are loitering in the wrong place at the wrong time.

Post-reading tasks

UNIT XLII

Samoa

When reporting on foreign culture, the media often focus on what seems alien, and the Polynesian island of Samoa is certainly a target of this kind of reporting. Whenever a journalist comes looking for a story, they inevitably focus on the fa'afafine (Samoan men who dress as women) and overlook most other aspects of Samoan culture. Almost without exception, they misrepresent the valued place that a fa'afafine has in the community.

Fa'afafine translates as in the manner of a woman. In traditional Samoan society, when a family had a large number of male children, one would be selected to help his mother. The choice would be based on which son showed the most ability and interest in domestic chores, and he would then be dressed and raised as female. The choice was in no way based on the sexual preferences the family believed the son might have. It was a choice based on who was best suited to a certain kind of labour. The fa'afafine's abilities in the home and in producing crafts, combined with physical strength, were a useful asset to Samoan communities. When the son grew up, he would marry and have children, as is expected of all Samoan men, but continue to retain a female identity. Modern-day Samoa has strong Christian beliefs, as well as a firm sense of cultural identity, and many Samoans resent the Western description of fa'afafine as homosexual.

Post-reading tasks

Decide if the sentences are True (T), False (F), or if the information is Not Given (NG) in the text.